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152 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The skull consists of what two bone groups?
facial bones and cranium
forms forehead, brow and superior eye orbit
frontal bone
bones at temples
temporal bones
canal that allows for the carotid artery
carotid canal
most posterior bone in the cranium
occipital bone
the butterfly-shaped bone that forms part of the floor of the cranial cavity
sphenoid bone
bone that forms the roof of thte nasal cavity and part of the medial wall of the eye orbits
ethmoid bone
what are the only two facial bones that are not paired?
mandible and vomer bones
upper jaw bones
maxillary bones (maxillae)
alveolar margin
The place in the maxillae where the upper teeth are carried
Extensions of the maxillae that form the hard palate
palatine processes
paranasal sinuses
cavities surrounding nasal cavity
zygomatic bones
lacrimnal bones
fingernail-sized bones that form part of the medial wall of the eye orbit; have the groove for tears
small rectangular bones that form the bridge of the nose
nasal bones
thin curved bones projecting from lateral walls of the nasal cavity
inferior conchae
lower jaw
How many bones are there in the human body?
about 206
What does the skeletal system consist of?
bones, cartilage, joints, ligaments
What are the four main functions of the skelatal system?
protection, support, movement, and storage
dense, smooth bone tissue
compact bone
small, needle-like pieces of with lots of open space
spongy bone
What are the four ways to classify bone by shape?
long, short, flat, and irregular
shaft, composed of compact bone
fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers and protects bone
sharpey's fibers
fibers that attach periosteum to bone
ends of long bone
hyaline cartilage on the end of long bone
articular cartilage
converting cartilage to bone
unit of bone
mature bone cells
bone matrix
concentric circles lacunae are arranged around
tiny canals radiating outward from central canal
cube-shaped spongy bone
short bone
bones with layer of spongy bone between two layers of compact bone
cavity that contains bone marrow
medullary cavity
_____ build up bone matrix, while ______ break it down.
osteoblast, osteoclast
channels for arteries and nerves
central canal, perforating canal, and canaliculi
includes clavicle and scapula
pectoral girdle
single bone in the arm
two forearm bones
radius and ulna
bone broken into many fragments
comminuted fracture
bone crushed
compression fracture
broken bone crushed inward
broken bone ends forced into each other
impacted fracture
ragged break occuring when excessiver twisting forces are applied to a bone
spiral fracture
bone break incompletely, common in children's bones
greenstick fracture
A _____ fracture breaks cleanly but does not break the skin; when bone ends penetrate the skin, it is a ____ fracture.
simple, compound
what are the four major events involved in the repair of a bone fracture?
hematoma formation, fibrocartilage callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling
what are the two major diferences in a fetal skull?
fetal skull is porportionatly larger, and there are fontanelles to allow for brain growth
name the three sets of bones in the hand
carpals, metacarpals, and phlanges
what three sets of bones form the pelvic girdle?
ilium, ischium, and pubis
sit bone
large, flaring hip bone
The knee joint is formed by the _____ and the _____.
femur, tibia
thigh bone
shin bone
smaller leg bone
Three sets of bones in the foot
tarsals, metaltarsals, and phlanges
ankle bone
what are the three ways to classify joints structurally?
fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
bones connected by cartilage
articulating bone ends
synovial joints
flat articular surfaces allowing for only short, gliding movements
plane joint
uniaxial joint allowing movement along only one plane
hinge joint
roung end into sleeve or ring of second end; can only move around its axis
pivot joint
egg-shaped articular surface into oval concavity; side-to-side and back-forth movement
condyloid joint
convex and concave joint ends
saddle joint
freely movable joint
ball-in-socket joint
An embryo's skeleton is ____ ____, which then ____ into bone.
hyaline cartilage, ossifies
____ is disease caused by deposits of ____ acid deposityed in soft tissues of joints.
Gout, uric
the most common form of arthritis
chronic inflammatory disorder that causes restricted joint movement and extreme pain
rhematoid arthritis
main part of a bone
enlarged end of bone
constriction between head and body of bone
edge of bone`
margin or border
bend of bone
branch of the body of bone
smooth, articular surface of bone
small, flattened articular surface of bone
low ridge of bone
line or linea
prominent ridge of bone
crest or crista
very high ridge of bone
prominent projection
small, rounded bump
knob of bone, larger than a tubercle
tuber or tuberosity
tuberosity on the proximal femur
near or above a condyle
flat, tongue-shaped process
hooked-shaped process
horn-shaped process
canal or meatus
sinus or labyrinth
general term for a depression
depression in the margin of a bone
little pit
deeper, narrow depression
groove or sulcus
alvolear process
ridges on the mandible and maxilla that contain the teeth
angle of mandible
posterior, inferior corner of manible
coronoid process of mandible
attachment point for the temporalis muscle
genu of the mandible
horizontal plate of the palatine bone
posterior third of the hard palate
mandibular condyle
region where the mandible articulates with the skull
mandibular fossa
depression where the mandible articulates with the skull
mastoid process
enlargement posterior to ear; attachment site for several muscle that moves head
nuchal lines of occipital bone
attachment site for several neck muscles
occipital condyle
point of articulation between skull and vertebral column
palatine process`
anterior two-thirds of hard palate
pterygoid hamulus
hooked process on the inferior end of medial pterygoid plate
pterygoid plates
bony plates on the inferior aspect of sphenoid bone; site of attachement for chewing muscles
styloid process
site on temporal bone that is attachment site for tongue and hyoid bone muscles
temporal lines
where the temporalis muscle attaches to the parietal bone
crista galli
process in the anterior part of cranial vault (on the ethmoid bone) to which the dura matter attaches
petrous portion of the temporal bone
thick, interior part of the temporal bone containing middle and inner ear
sella turica
bony structure of the sphenoid bone in which pituitary gland sits
bones connected by the coronal suture
frontal and parietal
bones connected by the sagittal suture
parietal bones
bones connected by the lamboid suture
occipital and parietal bones
mental foramen
hole in anterior lateral manible
bones connected by the squamous suture
partietal bone and temporal bone
vertebral foreman
hole in each vertebra through which the spinal cord passes
the lamina and the pedicle are part of which vertebral structure?
vertebral arch
the part of the verteba that articulates with other vertebra
articular process
intervertebral foramen
lateral opening between vertebrae through which spinal nerves exit
tip of shoulder
acromion process
articulation point between scapula and humerus
glenoid cavity
medial portion of humerus; articulates with ulna
Lateral portion of humerus; articulates with radius
muscle attachment site on distal humerus
medial and lateral epicondyles
proximal end of ulna that articulates with humerus
trochlear notch
olecranon process
finger bones
what markings seperate the false pelvis from the true pelvis?
iliopectineal lines
joined process from temporal to zygomatic bone
zygomatic arch
upper dome of the skull
what structure passes through the carotid canal?
carotid artery and carotid sympathetic nerve plates
what structure passes through the ethmoid foramina?
ethmoid nerves
what passes through the external auditory meatus?
sound waves enrout to eardrum
what structure passes through the foramen lacerum?
foramen is filled with cartilage
what structure passes through the foramen magnum of the occipital bone?
spinal cord
what structure passes through the foramen ovale of the sphenoid bone?
mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve
what structure passes through the foramen rotundum of the sphenoid bone?
maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve
what structure passes through the foramen spinosum of the sphenoid bone?
middle meningeal artery
what structure passes through the hypoglossal canal?
hypoglossal nerve
what structure passes through the incisive foramen?
incisive nerve
what structure passes through the inferior orbital fissure?
infraorbital nerve and zygomatic nerve
what structure passes through the internal auditory meatus?
facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve
what structure passes through the jugular foreman?
internal jugular vein, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve