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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Axial Skeleton


-Skull
1. cranium
2. facial bones
3. mandible -derived from gill arches
4. hyoid bone - derived from gill arches
Axial Skeleton


-Vertebral Column
1. Vertebra(e)
2. Intervertebral discs
3. intervertebral foramina - holes for spinal nerves that form once discs are together
-Types of vertebrae
1. cervical
2. thoracic - articulate with ribs
3. lumbar - lower back
4. sacral - fuse to form sacrum, articulates with pelvis and ilium
5. coccygeal - fuse together to form coccyx
Axial Skeleton

-Rib Cage
-Sternum
a. Ribs
b. Costal cartilage - hyaline cartilage
Appendicular Skeleton


-Pectoral Region
-Pectoral Girdle
* Clavicle
* scapula

-Pectoral Appendage
* arm
* hand
Appendicular skeleton


- Pelvic Region
a. Pelvic girdle - anchors leg & foot
1. left & right os coxa make up pelvic girdle
* Ilium
* Ischium - art. w/ ischial tuberosity
* pubis
Axial Skeleton


-Occipital bone features
* occipital condyles - up and down and tilting head
* foramen magnum - spinal cord
Vetebral column curvatures
Normal

-Primary
are convex
Vertebral Column Curvatures
Normal

Secondary
are concave
Vertebral Curvatures
Abnormal

-Kyphosis
excess thoracic curvature - hunchback
Vertebral curvatures
Abnormal

-Lordosis
excessive lumbar curvature - sway back
Vertebral curvatures
Abnormal

Scoliosis
lateral curvature
Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral Region

-Pectoral Girdle
1. Clavicle-
* sternal end art. w/ manubrium of sternum
* acromialend art. w/ acromium of scapula

2. Scapula
* acromial proces art. w/ acromial end of clavicle
* glenoid fossa art. w/ head of humerus
Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral region

-Pectoral appendage
1. Humerus
* coronoid fossa - anterior
* olecranon fossa - posterior
Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral appendage

-Ulna
-on the side of the pinky
* coronoid process - anterior
* olecranon process - posterior
Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral appendage

-Radius
Radiates around ulna on the side of the thumb
Pelvic appendage


-Femur
connects at acetabulum of os coxa
Pelvic Appendages
1. tibia - medial malleoulus, bump at ankle
2. fibula - lateral (attached to tibia at both ends)
3. tarsals - ankle bones
* calcaneus - heel of foot
* talus - art. with tibia & fibula
4. metatarsals
5. phalanges
Types of bone
Shapes and size

- LONG
* diaphysis - shaft
* medullary cavity - filled with yellow bone marrow(adipose)
* epiphysis (end)
* endosteum
* periosteum - dense irregular conn tiss.
* compact bone
* spongy (cancellous) bone with red bone marrow and trabeculae
Types of bone

-Short
include tarsals and carpals
Types of bone


- Flat
* Tables of compact bone
* Diploe - type of spongy bone
* include ribs and head bones
Types of bone


-Irregular
* vertebrae, some facial - same look as flat
Types of bone
* Osscles - tiny irregular bone such as auditary bone

* Sesamoid - bone in tendons ex. knee cap
Functions of Skeletal System
1. Protection
2. Support
3. Lever for movement
4. hemopoiesis - RBM of spongybone, mostly erythropoieses
5. Mineral storage - calcium phosphorus
Functions of Skeletal System

Hormones involved
* Parathormone (parathyroid hormone) in thyroid - stimulates osteoclast to breakdown bone (osteoblasts make bone)

* Calcitonin - inhibits osteoclast (decreases Ca absorbtion and lowers blood Ca)

* when osteoclast breakdown bone, it increases Ca reabsorbtion in blood and high blood Ca
Bone Tissue

Cells
* Osterblast - synthesize matrix
* osteocutes - sit in lacuna
* osteoclast - breakdown bone
Bone Tissue

Matrix
Made up of:
* 2/3 organic salts - especially Ca salts
* 1/3 organic collagen
Ossification

- Intramenbranous
* Flat bones of the skull
* mesenchyme - undifferentiated conn tissue will start making osteoblasts
* osteoblasts - start making bone matrix as tuberculie
Ossification

- Intracartilagionous or Endochondral
* for most bones of the body
* hyaline cartilage
* Primary ossification center - where bone 1st starts to form
* epiphysis
* epiphyseal discs - bands of cartilage, growth in this region is stimulated by growth hormone
* diaphysis
* secondary ossification center
* epiphyseal lines - where epiphysis met diaphysis, no cartilage
Ariculations

Fibrous Joints
* dense conn. tissue btw the bones
* interms of movement, most are synarthroses(immovable)
a. sysnostosis - sutures of the skull, as bones matures you loose most conn tissue in btw
b. syndesmosis - held together by ligament, ex btw ulna & radius
Articulations

Fibrous joints
* Gomphosis - bolt shape
* the joint btw the root of the tooth and maxilla or mandible
* periodontal membrane or ligament around tooth
Articulations


Cartilaginous Joints
* most are amphiarthroses (semi-movable)
A. synchondrosis - hyaline cartilage, ex. ribs to sternum

B. symphysis - fibrocartilage, ex. centrum of vert. to other centrum, pubis to pubis
Articulations


Synovial Joints
* freely movable
* have synovial fluid that provides lubrication for movement
Synovial Joints (diarthroses)


-Angular Movement
a. flexion - to decrease the angle btw two bones
b. extension - to increase angle btw 2 bones
c. abduction - move a body part away from midline
d. adduction - moving toward midline of body
Synovial Joints


- Circular movements
a. circumduction - to discribe a circle with the distal end of an extremity

b. rotation - to twist on center axis
* supination - lateral thumbs out
* pronation - medial thumbs in