Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the four purposes of the vertebral column
protect spinal cord
attachment point for muscles/ribs/visceral organs
support head
enable bipedalism
what does the vertebral arch do?
surrounds and protects the spinal cord
where does the spinal cord lie in the spinal column?
vertebral foramen
How many vertebrae are there?
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
How many sacral vertebrae are there?
5 fused
How many coccyx bones are there?
3 - 5 (4 average), FUSED.
Which areas of the vertebral canal are enlarged and why?
cervical region for the cervical plexus, lumbar region for the lumbar plexus and the sacral region for the lumbosacral plexus.
where in the vertebral column do the laminae overlap?
thoracic region.
What and where are the special features of the transverse processes of the vertebral column?
-cervical vertebrae have transverse foramina for the vertebral arteries.
-thoracic vertebrae have transverse facets for articulation with the heads of the ribs.
- lumbar transverse processes are long and slim to allow muscle attachment
- sacral transverse processes are fused.
describe the spinous processes of the vertebral column
-cervical spinous processes are short and bifid to allow muscle attachment.
-thoracic spinous processes are long, project downward, provide stability.
-lumbar spinous processes are stout and square: not to interfere w/ movement.
describe the alignment of the transverse processes of the vertebral column
cervical- aligned in transverse plane: permit free movement.
thoracic - aligned in coronal plane: permit limited movement.
lumbar- curved in sagital plane, limit rotation.
define condyle
large round articulating knob
define facet
flattened or hollow articulating surface
prominent rounded articulating end of bone
deep pit or socket
narrow, slitlike opening
rounded opening through a bone
flattened or shallow surface
cavity or hollow space in a bone
groove that accommodates a vessel, nerve or tendone
narrow, ridgelike projection
projection adjacent to a condyle
flattened angular part of a bone
sharp slender process
A massive process found only on the femur
small rounded process
large roughened process
any marked bony prominence
constricted area (between head and body) such as the neck of the femur.
Five types of bone cells
osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and bone lining cells
Osteogenic cells
near periosteum and endosteum
bone forming cells
large, multinuclear cells, enzymatically break down bone tissue and release minerals to blood
mature bone cells – secrete bone tissue around themselves.
bone lining cells
regulate calcium and phosphate in and out of the bone matrix
largest skull cavity
cranial cavity 130-1500cc
Chambers of nasal cavity
nasal fossae, separated by nasal septum (bone and cartilage)
how many ribs are there?
how many of the ribs are true ribs and what does this mean?
7 - attach directly to sternum via costal cartilage
how many false ribs are there?
5 (don't attach to sternum directly, only to costal cartilage, last two "floating" - no anterior attachment)
what is an important feature of the structure of bone?
hollow, therefore lighter - less load on muscles.
where does bone get its blood supply from
microscopic vessels within, and larger vessels via nutrient foramen.
segmentation of vertebral column
happens during embryological stage.
maintains protection while allowing for flexibility of tube.
another name for os coxae
innominate bones (each comprised of three bones that fuse - ilium, ischium, pubis).
true pelvis
inferior and posterior to pelvic brim - generally well protected area - houses portions of digestive/urogenital systems.
false pelvis
superior to pelvic brim - abdominal contents here could spill forward (prevented only by abdominal muscles.)
how many tarsal bones are there?
which is the largest strongest bone of the foot?
calcaneous. Takes most of the weight.
what are the names of the two arches of the foot?
transverse and longitudinal
what is the purpose of the arches of the foot
allow the foot to support the weight of body.
provide leverage when walking, and spring to step.
which part of the longitudinal arch is more elevated?
the medial. - talus is the keystone of this part.
describe the longitudinal arch.
originates at calcaneous, rises anteriorly through talus, highest point, descends to first three metatarsals.
describe the longitudinal arch.
Medial part originates at calcaneous, rises anteriorly through talus, highest point, descends to first three metatarsals. lateral part calcaneous, cuboid, and 4th/5th metatarsals, with cuboid as keystone.
describe the transverse arch
across width of foot, formed by calcaneous, navicular, and cuboid bones posteriorly, and bases of metatarsals anteriorly.
what supports the arches?
ligaments and tendons.