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32 Cards in this Set

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APGAR Score (0-10 scale)
A=appearance/color
P=pulse/HR
G=grimace/reflex response
A=activity/muscle tone
R=respiration
7-10 is normal
Colic
A sudden crying or irritation of a newborn usually starts @ 6wk age & resolves @ 3-4 months
Hirschsprung's Dz
Inability to not pass the meconium in 24hrs d/t functional obstruction of distal colon lacking autonomic innervation.
Average wt for term newborn
7lbs/3.2kg
Average head circumference
1/2 the body length + 10cm
Normal newborn wt
≥2500 gms
Low=1500-2499 gms
V/Low=1000-1499 gms
Ext/Low<1000 gms
Normal Gestational age
40 wks (37-42 wks)
Preterm<37 wks
Postterm>42 wks
Birth wt appropriate for gestational age
Bet 10th & 90th percentile
SGA<10th percentile
LGA>90th percentile
Vernix Caseosa
A whitish, greasy material covering the body (≥24wks) that decreases as term approaches (40wks)
Newborn Skin appearance
Usually ruddy/reddish; may be acrocyanosis for first few hrs, dryness/peeling at wrists/ankles, petechiae over scalp/face & vernix caseosa
Cephalohematoma
A mass composed of clotted blood, located between the periosteum and the skull of a newborn. It is confined between suture lines and usually is unilateral; do not aspirate.
Caput Succedaneum
Diffuse edema of the fetal scalp that crosses the suture lines; resolves in few days.
Abnormally depressed fontanelle
Indication of low ICP usually d/t dehydration
Epsein's Pearls
Small pearl like elevations on infant's hard palate.
Bednar's Aphthae
Small ulcerations on infant's hard palate.
Average normal HR of newborn
120 beats/min
100-160 normal range
Normal range of newborn's respirations
40-60 breaths/min
The most common heart murmur in a newborn during 1st 24 hrs is d/t
Patent ductus arteriosus; usually closes in 3 days.
Newborn Physical Exam
Inspect Skin, HR, RR, Activity, Head, Eyes, Ears, Mouth, Abdomen, Genitalia, Hip displacement, Neuro (Moro, Sucking, Rooting reflexes), any gross abnormality
Protein & Energy Requirements of Newborn
Relative requirements for protein and energy (g or kcal/kg body weight) decline progressively from the end of infancy through adolescence, although absolute requirements increase.
Newborn Birth wt
Infants should double their birth wt by 6 mo. Loss of > 5 to 7% of birth wt in the 1st wk indicates undernutrition.
Adv of Breastfeeding to Newborn
Nutritional and cognitive; protection against infection, allergies, obesity, Crohn's disease, and diabetes
Adv of Breast Feeding to Mother
Reduced fertility during lactation; more rapid return to normal prepartum condition; protection against osteoporosis, obesity, and ovarian and premenopausal breast cancers
Colostrum
The first milk, which is a high-calorie, high-protein, thin yellow fluid that is immunoprotective because it is rich in antibodies, lymphocytes, and macrophages, and also stimulates passage of meconium.
Breast Milk contains
Colostrum, high lactose content (↑enzymic value), high Vit-E (↑RBC's life span), Ca: P ratio 2: 1 (prevents tetany), ∆s pH of stool & intestinal flora to protect against bacterial diarrhea; fatty acid, cholesterol for brain dev
S/Sx of Newborn Dehydration/Undernutrion
By 5 days of age, a normal neonate wets at least 6 diapers/day and soils 2 to 3 diapers/day (↓# indicate dehyd/undernutr);failure to attain growth; Constant fussiness before age 6 wk; ↓in vigor of the infant's cry and skin turgor; lethargy and sleepiness
Stool color of Newborn
Mustard yellow to dark brown; breastfed babies tends to have softer and lighter color
The Umbilical Cord
Should be observed & moistened w/ alcohol daily; do not use antibiotic oint (it prolongs dryness of cord stump)
The most common neonatal skin lesion
Erythema Toxicum; a benign rash with an erythematous base and a white or yellow papule.
Minimum age for vaccine of RV(rota virus, DTaP, Hib(hemophilus influenzae), PCV(pneumococcal), IPV(inactivated polio virus)
2 months
Minimum age for Vericella, MMR & Hep A
12 months
Minimum age for HPV (human papiloma virus)
9 yrs