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45 Cards in this Set

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Types of Hearing Loss
Conductive & Sensorineural
Sensorineural {Sensori & Neural}
Conductive Hearing Loss
Results from dysfunction of Outer/Middle ear; eg-wax; otitis externa & OM; Otosclerosis
Sensori Hearing Loss
Due to dysfunction of Choclea or loss of hair cells in the organ of Corti; eg- Noise; head trauma; systemic diz
Neural Hearing Loss
Due to lesions on CN-8 or auditory cortex; eg- acoustic neuroma, MS, auditory neuropathy
Types of disorders of Ear Canal
Cerumen Impaction; OE & FB
Cerumen Impaction
Commonly self-induced via ill-advised ear cleaning; Tx-3% hydrogen peroxide, clean outer ear w/ wash cloth w/ index finger, irrigation w/ H2o @ room temp
Otitis Externa / OE
Infection of outer ear mainly CAUSED by Pseudomonas, proteus & Fungi; S/Sx- Pain @ Pinna & Tragus, erythema/edema of ear canal, drainage; Tx- avoid moisture, antibiotic drops (Neomycin+hydrocortysone, Cipro for Pseudomonas)
Foreign Body / FB
Common in young children; Tx- irrigate metal & beads EXCEPT beans, remove w/ currette or blunt hook, mineral oil for insects
Most common cause of "Middle Ear"- Hearing Loss among "Young Adults"
Otosclerosis; it is mainly Genetic NOT congenital; bilateral; pt hears better in Noise; Tx-Stapedectomy
Triad in Meniere's Diz
Vertigo-Tinnitis-Sensori Hearing Loss; usually Unilateral; mainly caused by Syphilis & Head Trauma
Triad cause of OM-Acute
Strep pneumoniae; Hemophilus influenza; Morexella catarrhalis
Plugged ear feeling
OM-Serous/Effusion; due to Blockage of Eustachian tube; Visualization of "Air-fluid" levels;
Complications of OM
Meningitis; mastoiditis; cholesteatoma; tympanosclerosis; TM perforation; facial paralysis
Causes of Chronic-OM
Staph aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Proteus; Tx-Avoid H2o, Ciprofloxacin for Pseudomonas, Surgical repair of TM is "definitve" tx
Sinus X-Rays
Caldwell-Frontal; Waters-Maxillary; Lateral-Sphenoid; Submentovertical-Ethmoid
TX for Sinusitis
Amoxicillin 250mg TID; Decongestants; Surgical drainage
Tx for Nasal Hematoma
Surgical Drainage; packing & antibiotics
Tx for Epistaxis
Anterior Pack
Nasal polyps
Peeled off grape; Tx- Nasal corticoids; surgical removal
diff bet Canker Sores & Herpetci Gingivostomatitis
Canker Sore=Common sores; no fever/lymphaddenopathy
Herpetic Gingivostomatitis= sore; sudden high fever; malaise; drooling
Manifestations of Coxasackie Virus-A
Herpangina (Viral Stomatitis) & Hand-Foot-Mouth diz
Manifestations of Coxasackie Virus-B
Resp Infections
Pharyngitis / Strep Throat
Viral or Bacterial; Bacterial=Grp A Beta-hemolytic Streptococci; soft palate petechiae; Tx- Penicillin or Erythromycin to cover Glomerulonephritis & Rheumatic fever
CDC given Dx for Strep Throat
Fever>102; Ant Cervical lyphadenopathy; Red swollen tonsils w/ exudates; dysphagia; absence of URI sx or cough
Most common type of Pharyngitis?
Viral
Indications for Tonsillectomy
Recurrent strep throat; Hx of peritonsillar abscess; OSA
Most common cause of Croup / Laryngotracheobronchits
Para-influenza virus;PE-subglottic edema; S/sx- barking cough or strider w/ "steeple sign or pencil shaped" CXR; Tx-O2; racemic epi; cool mist; decadron
Cause of Epiglotitis
Hemophilis influenza grp-B; Life threatening emergency; CXR- thumb print sign; Tx- IV antibiotics; traceostomy
4Ds for Epiglotitis
Distress; Dysphagia; Dysphonia; Drooling
Most common cause of Laryngitis
Viral URI
Commmon cause of Orbital Cellulitis
Paranasal Sinusitis-H. influenza
Complication:-Meningitis; optic neuritis
Types of Blepharitis
Ulcerative-Acute Bacterial
Seborrheic-Chronic Seborrheic dermatitis
Cause of Hordeolum (Guharni)
Staph infection; External:-Superficial
Internal:-Deep
Diff bet Hordeolum & Chalazion
Hordeolum is Painful & near eye lashes, but Chalazion is NOT painful & away from the eye lashes
Diff bet Dacryostenosis & Dacryocystitis
Dacryostenosis=Obstruction of Nasolacrimal duct
Dacryocystitis=2^o to dacryostenosis; pus regurgitation through the Punctum w/ pressure
Cause of Trachoma / Chronic Chlamydial Conjuctivits
Chlamyda trachomatis; Tx-doxycycline 100 mg BID x 4days
Diff bet Allergic & Viral conjunctivitis
Allergic= Red, ITCHY, watery
Viral=Red, BUMPY,watery w/ URIs
Common cause of Viral Conjunctivits
Adenovirus
Diff bet Pterygium & Pinguecula
Pterygium=Triangular fleshy growth ON the cornea; may SPREAD
Pinguecula=Raised yellowish-white growth ADJACENT to the cornea; DOESN'T SPREAD
Arcus Senilis
A gray-white arc/circle around the Limbus due to LIPID DEPOSIT; Benign-doesn't effect vision
Diff bet Anterior & Posterior Uveitis
Anterior=Iritis; Slit-lamp findings "cells & flare"
Posterior=Choroidits; White funny fundus lesions
2nd most common cause of Blindness in US
Glaucoma; Open Angle Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in Blacks
Most common cause of Blindness in older people
Macular degeneration
Diff bet Retinal Artery & Vein Occlusion
Artery/O=Cotton-wool spot; means No blood
Vein/O=Blood & Thunder optic fundus; means bloody veins in fundus
Most common cause of blindness in middle adulthood
Diabetic Retinopathy