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31 Cards in this Set

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a autoimmune syndrome of diffuse goiter with hyperthyroidism, exopthalmos, tachy and tremor; heat intolerance and weight loss?
graves' disease
if TSH levels are increased then what can you predict to be the cause of the hyperthyroidism?
pituitary related
if TSH levels are DECREASED what can you predict to be the cause of hyperthyroidism?
thyroid caused
what is the MC situation of hyperthyroidism?
thyroid dependent
low TSH
elevated T3, T4=
what is the cause of hyperthyroidism assciated with graves disease?
a circulating immunoglobulin G (TSAb) that is directed against the TSH receptors on the follicular cells of the thyroid
granulomatous production in front of the tibia and behind the eyes is indicitive of ?
hyperthyroid/Graves' dz
what are the 3 possible tx for Graves' hyperthyroidism?
"BAR"
1.medical BLOCKADE of hormone
2.radioiodine ABLATION
3.surgical RESECTION
how is iodide administerd as treatment for hyperthyroid/Graves?
as potassium iodide
or
Lugol's solution
a counterintuitive effect in which iodide is adminstered and temporarily inhibits the release of thyroid hormone from the gland is called?
Wolff-Chaikoff effect
what is the isotype of choice for the radioablation of hyperactive thyroid tissue?
131 I
a thionamide drug used to treat hyperthyroidism by decreasing the amount of thyroid hormone produced by the thyroid gland.
PTU
a solitary tumor of the thyroid gland that produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormone and causes clinically overt hyperthyroidism?
toxic adenoma
how can you differentiate between hyperthyroidism caused by graves and hyperthy. caused by toxic adenoma?
in graves: thyroid is diffusely enlarged

in t.a.: normal/small thyroid, with a palpable hot nodule
what would the labs read for a patient with toxic adenoma?
Increased T3 , T4
decreased TSH
toxic multinodular goiter?
plummer's disease
what type of cells give rise to well differentiated thyroid cancers?
follicular cells (papillary and follicular varieties)
what type of cells give rise to medullary carcinoma?
parafollicular cells
what type of cells give rise to lymphoma?
lymphoid cells
what is the MC type of thyroid malignancy in the US?
papillary carcinoma
psammoma bodies?
concentric layers of calcium indicitive of PAPILLARY CA
what is the risk factors for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid?
AGES:
Age
histologic Grade
Extent of disease
tumor Size
this carcinoma presents with a monotonous, relatively uniform apperance of microfollicles ?
follicular CA
what type of thyroid carcinoma presents in both thyroid lobes and the p has a history of familial MEN-2?
medullary carcinoma
if you are suspicious of medullary carcinoma what could you expect to see in the plasma screening?
elevated calcitonin
what is the treatment for medullary cancer with out obvious lymph node metastases?
total thyroidectomy and central lymph dissection
what is the aggressive carcinoma that arises from follicular cells but is totally dedifferentiated?
anaplastic carcinoma
how do you distinguish betweena lymphoma from hashimoto's thyroiditis?
core needle biopsy
what is the blood supply to the parathyroid glands?
multiple branches of the inferior thyroid arteries
what hormone regulates calcium homeostasis?
parathyroid hormone PTH
what are the 3 main elements that are crucial to the maintenance of calcium homeostasis?
PTH
calcitonin
magnesium
what is the MOA of PTH?
directly increases calcium resorption in the proximal convoluted renal tubule and increases phosphate clearance