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16 Cards in this Set

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What do tyrosine kinases stimulate? ___ pathways.
MAPK
What do cytokine recptor tyrosine kinases stimulate? ___ pathways.
JAK/STAT and other pathways.
The TGF-beta receptor Ser/Thr kinase superfamily stimulate ___?
SMADs
The receptor guanylyl cyclases produce ___?
cGMP (cyclic GMP)
What is the RTK structure for Insulin? For Growth factors?
Insulin: Two membrane-spanning subunits, two extracellular subunits, joined by di-sulfide bonds.

Growth factors: Single transmembrane alpha helix domain, extracellular conserved motifs. Ligand binding promotes receptor dimerizaton.
Give three examples of growth factor ligands.
EGF - epidermal growth factor
FGF - fibroblast growth factor
PDGF - platelet-derived growth factor
NFG - nerve growth factor
When ligand is bound to a receptor tyrosine kinase, what two things immediately occur?

What happens next on the receptor?
Dimerization and phosphorylation of activation lip tyrosines.

Phosphorylation of additional tyrosine residues.
Give three different pathways activated by RTKs. Show the primary elements.
--> --> Ras --> raf --> --> MAPK

phospholipase C gamma --> IP3 + DAG

PI-3 kinase --> Akt pathways
What are the four interaction domains on a RTK?
SH2
SH3
PTB
PH
For a RTK with EGF as the ligand, what complexes are coupled to the receptor? What are the coupling domains? What is activated?
GRB2 is connected to the RTK via the SH2 domain and to Sos by SH3 domains. The Sos connects to Ras. Sos promotes the dissociation of GDP from Ras and GTP binds to Ras, thus activating it.
What is the full name for GEF and GAP?

What does a GEF and GAP do?

What is an example target complex for these to operate upon?
GEF - guanine nucleotide exchange factor. It binds to a GTP-binding protein and causes it to release its GDP so a GTP may take its place.

GAP - GTPase activating protein. It binds to a GTP-binding protein and induces it to hydrolize its bound GTP molecule to GDP.

Ras
Give the proteins in the ERK pathway.

What function do many of these complexes have in common?
Ras -> Raf -> MEK -> ERK -> p90RSK -> TCP, SRF transcription factors.

Kinase activity, e.g. Raf, MEK, ERK phosphorylize substrates.
List at least 3 of 5 parallel MAPK signaling pathways in yeast giving:
Extracellular signal
MAP kinase
Cell response
Pheromone -> Fus3 -> Mating

Starvation -> Kss1 -> Filamentation

High Osmolarity -> Hog1 -> Osmolyte synthesis

Hypotonic shock -> Mpk1 -> Cell-wall remodeling

Carbon and nitrogen deprivation -> Smk1 -> Sporulation
What is used to help prevent cross-talk and give more control to a signal pathway?
Scaffold protein
What type of phosphate receptor is found in MEKK, MEK, MAPK?
theronine/tyrosine
Give at least 3 of 5 transcription factors phophorylated by MAPK pathway activation.
p90RSK -> SRF(serum response factor) -> SRE (serum response element on DNA)

ERK -> TCP -> SRE

ERK -> Elk -> SRE

JNK -> Jun -> AP-1 regulatory unit on DNA

ERK -> CREB -> CRE regulatory unit on DNA