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49 Cards in this Set

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Flow cytometry will identify B-cells via these molecules
CD19
CD20
endogenous pyrogen
IL-1
acute phase response, synergistic with IL-1 and TNFa
IL-6
Secreted by macrophages. Increases IL-2 receptor synthesis by Th cells. Has cytotoxic effects.. Causes cachexia.
TNF-alpha
Chemokine (chemoattractant) for neutrophils and T cells
IL-8
Proliferation of Activated T Cells (Clonal Expansion)
IL-2
Induces IFN-g production from T cells (Th1 responses)proliferation of NK cells. NOT made by T cells. Secreted by B cells and macrophages.
IL-12
activates macrophages, induces MHC class I on somatic cells, induces MHC class II on APCs and somatic cells, NK cells, promotes cell-mediated immunity, antiviral effects
IFN-g
Inhibits Th1 cytokine activity

Source:
TH2 cellsCD4+CD25+ TregB cells, macrophages
IL-10
Anti-inflammatory. Induces class switch to IgA.
Transforming growth factor - Beta
Inhibits viral replication
IFN-a IFN-b
T and B lymphopoiesis
IL-7
Transcription factor activated by calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Important for cytokine gene transcription, among other targets
NFAT
Transcription factor involved in regulating many gene families: pro-inflammatory genes (adhesion molecules, cytokines, TNFa), survival factors (e.g. bcl-2, bax)
NF-kB
2 Drugs that inhibit IL-2 synthesis
Cyclsporin
FK506 Tacrolimus
Inactivates NF-kB. Immunosuppressive drug that effects macrophage and T-cell interaction
Corticosteriod
Prednisone
Beclomethasone
Antimetabolite derivative of 6-mercaptopurine that interferes with the metabolism and synthesis of nucleic acids. Toxic to proliferating lymphocytes.
Azathioprine
Binds mTOR a serine-threonine kinase to inhibit T-cell proliferation.
Sirolimus
Antibody against IL-2 receptor in T-cells
Daclizumab
Anti-lymphocyte antibodies
OKT3, ATG, ALG
Bone Marrow Transplant are associated with ...
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders often described as “opportunistic neoplasms”
What cytokines:
Reduces viral replication
Increases MHC Class I
Activated NK Cells
Type I Interferons (IFNa/b)
How do Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccines work?

Give 3 examples
B cells recognize the polysaccharide and the protein can be processed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate T cell responses.
(Hib, MCV4, PCV)
Adjuvants added to vaccines will ...
(1) prolong antigen exposure (slow release) and can (2) stimulate APC’s to express co-stimulatory molecules and secrete cytokines
Tumors express novel antigens that could be used as potential vaccines.

Give 3 examples
MAGE, HER2, MUC
Cytokine Therapy for Cancers use
TNF-alpha
mAbs used to treat Cancers:
Non-Hodkin’s Lymphoma
anti-CD20
mAbs used to treat Cancers:
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
anti-CD52
mAbs used to treat Cancers:
Colorectal
anti-VEGF
mAbs used to treat Cancers:
Colorectal, Head & Neck
anti-EGFR
Defects in lymphocyte maturation
4
a. SCID
i. X-linked (Common gamma chain)
ii. Autosomal recessive (JAK def., ADA, Signaling defects, RAG def)

b. Btk deficiency

c. DiGeroge syndrome

d. Class I and II MHC deficiency/ TAP deficiency
Defects in lymphocyte activation
4
a. Hyper IgM syndrome (CD40/CD40 ligand deficiency, other molecules involved in class switch recombination)

b. Ig subclass deficiency

c. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (SAP deficiency)

d. Familial hemophagocytic syndrome (Perforin deficiency, others causes as well)
Immunodeficiency associated with other inherited diseases
2
a. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WASP deficiency

b. Ataxia Telangiectasia
Diseases associated with autoimmunity
3
a. IPEX

b. ALPS

c. AIRE (APECED)
Defects in Innate Immunity
Phagocytic cell function:
CGD, Chediak Higashi, Leukocyte Adhesion deficien

Complement deficiencies
cytokine for myeloid making
IL-3
cytokine for platelet making
IL-11
cytokine for eosinophil making
IL-5
B-cell signal transduction complex
IgA
IgB
CD19
CD21
expressed during rearrangement of gene segments for synthesis of heavy chain.
Tdt
Lacks CD18 of Beta-chain
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (umbilical cord infection)
LFA-1 binds
ICAM-1
CD2 binds
LFA-3
CD28 binds
B7
Th2 cells produce
IL-2
IL-4
IL-5
IL-6
IL-10
Deficiency of CD40L
x-linked hyper-IgM
deficiency of C1-INH
Hereditary angioedema
Nef gene
downregulates class I MHC
Tat gene
inhibits cytokine synthesis in both infected and uninfected cells