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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
structuring color
to use color for a specific purpose
color has three principal functions
informational, compositional, and expressive
informational aspect of color
tell more about an object, helps render the scene more realistically, color can also help distinguish objects from one another
the symbolic use of color
symbolism must be known to audience because symbolic associations are learned
the compositional function of color
helps define screen areas and bring the energies of pictorial elements into a balanced yet dynamic interplay
colors are said to harmonize best. . .
when they are close together, directly opposite each other, or in triangular configuration on the hue circle
nb. this concept is of little value in television and film
highly saturated colors
bold, high energy less grey colors
less saturated colors
low-energy more grey colors
the expressive function of color
to make us feel a specific way; color can also provide drama and excitement
color feelings
warm, high energy colors suggest a happy mood

cold, low energy colors suggest a somber mood
desaturation theory
by desaturating to the point of omitting chromatic colors altogether, we can entice the viewer to participate in the event, to look "into" the event rather than "at" the event
low-definition color
subdued, desaturated color scheme or single hue; good at revealing or intensifying inner event. the less concerned we are about outer reality, the less important color becomes.
black-and-white technique
total desaturation renders the event low-definition, which forces the viewer into psychological involvement
aspect ratio
the relationship of screen width and screen height
screen space
what can be seen on the screen, fized borders.
horizontal orientation screen
standard television, film, and computer screens are this.
standard television and computer screens
4 x 3 ratio (four units wide and three units high) establish as early as 1889
when showing a full frame of a wide-screen image on the normal television screen, leaves dead zoneson the top and bottom of the screen
fitting a 4 x 3 format onto a widescreen (16 x 9) tv, leaves empty bands called side bars or dead zones
digital stretching
when an image is digitally stretched to fit the 16 x 9 ratio.
digital squeezing
to fit the wide screen image onto the standard 4 x 3 ratio, the image is squeezed and people look thinner and taller
changing aspect ratio through artificial masking
changing the aspect ratio by masking certain parts of the screen
changing aspect ratio through natural masking
rather than artificially block the sides of a movie screen to change its aspect ratio, we can use scenic objects such as buildings or trees as masking devices.
changing aspect ratio with secondary frames
through digital video effects (dve) we can create many secondary picture areas within the television screen, each of which may have a different aspect ratio
size reference to human being
human being helps to judge actual size of objects
screen area as a size reference: close up
makes objects appear larger
screen area as a size reference: long shot
makes objects appear smaller
size constancy
we perceive people and their environments as normal sized regardless of whether they appear on a large movie screen or a small television screen or in a long shot or a close-up
basic purpose of lighting
to manipulate and articulate the perception of our environment
attached shadow
inevitably fixed to its object - no amount of wiggling or turning will remove the shadow (assuming you keep it under the same lighting conditions)
cast shadow - object connected
when the shadow is still connected to its object. help reveal whether objects rest on another surface or are separate from it
cast shadow - object disconnected
when the shadow is seen independent of its object. reveals whether the object rests on another surface.
nb. object connected cast shadows are not the same as attached shadows.
cast shadow - independent
the farther away the object is from the surface, the fuzzier its cast shadow appears
effects of cast shadows
cast shadows can suggest locale and create mood.
1) the brightness contrast between the light and shadow sides of an object and
2) the rate of change from light to shadow
fast falloff
high change between light and shadow; spotlights produce fast fallow because the beam is highly directional
slow falloff
highly diffused light that has a subtle contrast between light and dark.
elimination of falloff
when all sides are equally bright. also called flat lighting. flash photography
fast falloff: curved surface & edge
edge: light to dark is sudden, signifying sharp edge or corner

curved surface: the light on the object surface changes gradually into its attached shadow
controlling falloff
used highly directional or diffused light and by manipulating the fill light
spatial orientation
lighting reveals where an object is relative to its surrounding
tactile orientation
lighting for space is done primarily to orient us better visually
facial texture: fast falloff versus slow falloff
fastfallof illuminates texture and wrinkles, slowfalloff achieves the opposite effect
outdoor illumination: day
sky is bright, cast shadows are pronounced, falloff is fast
outdoor illumination: night
background is dark, shadows are prominent, and the light comes from obvious sources
indoor lighting: day
lighting is rather flat, slow falloff
indoor lighting: night
window area is dark, lamp is turned on, lighted for fastfallof, distinct shadows
cast shadows tell time
long cast shadows tell us the sun is in an early morning or late afternoon position. noon shadows are short. long cast = late evening early morning
sun seasons
winter sun is weaker and colder than summer sun, the light is more bluish, light at low angle even at noon, falloff is slow
high key lighting
an abundance of bright usually slow falloff illumination. bright and nonspecific, high overall light level, slow or no falloff, usually a light background
low-key lighting
highly selective lighting, very low overall light, specific lighting that has fast falloff, dense shadows, and usually a dark backdground
eye level lighting
below eye level lighting has light under chin = ominous

above eye level lighting the light from above and is normal, think sunlight
predictive lighting
helps indicate a coming event, drastic lighting change gives viewer a clue to coming (bad) event
deliberate control of light
photographic principle
this refers the triangular arrangement of key, back, and fill lights, with the back light opposite the camera and directly behind the object, and the key and fill lights on the opposite sides of the camera and to the front and side of the object. because the placement of the three main objects forms a triangle, this lighting set up is commonly known as triangle lighting.
triangle lighting
see photographic principle
key light
the principle source of illumination
back light
separates the figure from the background and provides sparkle
fill light
controls falloff
side light
light that comes from the side
light which comes from the back. it is an extension of the back light and rims the object from below what the backlight can reach.
background light, or set light
the light that illuminates the set and the background.
chiaroscuro lighting
lighting for fast falloff and for light/dark contrast. the basic aim of this lighting is to articulate space, to clarify and intensify the three-dimensional property of things and the space that surrounds them, and to give the scene an expressive quality.
highly directional light and fast falloff helps emphasize texture
organic function of chiaroscuro
should look realistic
overall light level
directional function of chiaroscuro
use the light to direct the viewer's attention
spatial/compositional function of chiaroscuro
the light (high and low energy) should be distributed within the frame in such a way that they balance each other.
thematic function of chiaroscuro
lighting should emphasize the theme or story of the scene
emotional function of chiaroscuro lighting
to affect our feelings through lighting.
chiaroscuro: rembrandt
very selective lighting, only specific areas are carefully illuminated. the falloff is fast, but there is enough fill light to render the attached shadows somewaht transparent. the background is generally dark but partially illuminated to outline and set off the figures or to fulfill other orientation functions.
chiaroscuro: cameo lighting
cameo lighting is chiaroscuro pushed to its extreme. cameo lighting illuminates the foreground figures while leaving the background totally dark. the lighting is highly directional producing fast falloff with dense attached and sharply defined cast shadows. really bad for tv because it's so highly directional, can't track movement.
flat lighting
the opposite of chiaroscuro lighting. it uses highly diffused light that seems to come from all directions. very slow falloff and such highly transparent attached and cast shadows that we usually do not notice them. in flat lighting we are not aware of any principal light source. flat lighting shows the whole scene more or less illuminated. flat lighting is ideal for continuous action. flat lighting reduces texture. flat lighting looks flat, bad for spatial orientation.
thematic and emotional functions of flat lighting
flat lighting can suggest efficiency, cleanliness, truth, an upbeat feeling, and fun. news sets and game shows use flat lighting.
silhouette lighting
silhouette lighting is the exact opposite of cameo--light the figure and not the cameo--silhouette is lighting the background and not the figure. it emphasizes the contour of things
combining the postive and negative image
reducing the tonal range of an image to a few steps
single camera lighting (aka film lighting or film-style lighting)
used for discontinuous short duration action.
barndoors, gobos, and flags
things used to impede lighting, a blocking instrument! for the blocking technique!
multiple-camera light
continuous long duration action by performers in game shows, sitcoms, interviews, talk shows, or actors in studio dramas.
aspect ratio
the relationship of screen width to screen height
standard aspect ratio
also known as
wide screen format
HDTV aspect ratio
16 x 9
Motion Picture aspect ratio
why widescreen?
landscape, establishing shots are supreme
when similar elements lie in close proximity to one another, we tend to see them together.
similar shapes are seen together
once a dominant line is established, its direction is not easily disturbed
horizontal arrangement
sugests calmness, tranquility, and rest
vertical lines
dynamic, powerful, and exciting
magnetism and edges
the edges of screens exert strong pull on objects near them. corners exert the greatest pull.
small disc versus large disc
a centered large disc creates an expansion effect while a small disc creates a compression effect
asymmetry of the frame
two sides of the screen are structurally unequal
negative versus positive pull
using the pull of the screen edges to achieve the desired effect
graphic weight & graphic mass
how large the object is in the screen. the larger the mass, the greater its attractive power. large disc attracts small discs
read from left to right, give motion to the screen
figure/ground principle
the stable reference points (the background) and the less-stable reference points (the figures)
placing two disparate images on top of each other to to create an ambiguous figure/ground relationship
psychological closure
our tendency to mentally fill in gaps in visual information to arrive at complete and easily manageable patterns
the pattern that results from applying psychological closure
contrast ratio
the steps between the lightest and darkest picture areas
indicates direction that has been established by implication or by actual screen motion
graphic vector
created by stationary elements that guides our eyes in a certain direction. the direction of a graphic vector is ambigous!
index vectors
created by something that points unquestionably in a specific direction
motion vector
created by an object that is actually moving or seen as moving on the screen
vector magnitude
determined primarily by screen direction, graphic mass, and perceived object speed. the larger the object and the faster the speed of the object, the graphic mass is, the larger its vector magnitude. strong or weak = high or low magnitude
z-axis vector
something moving or pointing directly toward or away from the camera
continuing vectors
when two or more index and/or motion vectors point in the same direction
converging vectors
point toward each other
diverging vectors
point away from each other
stable stage of balnce
(symmetry most stable)
neutral stage of balance
(assymetry, leads to dynamic structure)
unstable stage of balance
pemature closure
when the visual elements of two nonrelated objects provide enough continuation of graphic vectors to be perceived as single closure
illogical closure
occurs when the visual elements of two nonrelated objects provide a continuation to be perceived as connected (antlers shot)