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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

-Post Cold War, more recent
-Pressing nations into one commercially homogenous global network
-Four imperatives: market, resource, information-technology, and ecological
-Coming together of language, currency, and behavior
-McDonald’s, MTV, Macintosh
-National borders are porous
-Centripetal force

-Post Cold War, more recent
-Against every kind of interdependence, artificial social cooperation, and civic mutuality
-Falling apart: religious fundamentalism is fractious and pulverizing
-Centrifugal force
-Backlash against McWorld
-Develops local identity, community, and solidarity among kinsmen but intolerance toward outsiders
The West vs. the Rest

-West uses international institutions, military power, and economic resources to maintain its predominance, protect its interests, and promote its political and economic values
-Differences in power and culture between West and non-West are sources of conflict
-These efforts by Western countries to promote values just reaffirm non-Western countries’ indigenous values
-Result in: isolation from West completely, joining the West and accepting values, or join with other non-Westerners to modernize and work against the West
Clash of Civilizations

-Civilization identity is increasing in importance
-Conflicts will occur along cultural fault lines
-Basic differences: history, language, culture, tradition, and religion
-Smaller world leads to more interaction leads to similarities and differences more obvious
-Religion transcends national boundaries and unites civilizations
-Dual role of West
-Cultural characteristics are less mutable hence less easily compromised or resolved than political and economic ones
-Economic regionalism increasing – only successful with common civilizations
New Internal Wars (NIWs)

-Sudan genocide
-Senseless disorderliness and extreme violence exacted on fellow countrymen
-Control of government is not clear objective – want to destabilize so no one has control
-No motivation for moderation in violence because aren’t trying to please people, they just want to kill opponent
-No organization or hierarchy to military – “fighters” instead of “soldiers”
-Lack of distinction between civilians and military targets
War Dividend

-Economic conditions are best indicator of country’s vulnerability to civil war
-Motivation for rebellion matters less than the conditions that make it financially and militarily viable
-Should focus more on reducing viability
-Rethink global financial system
-Must have credible policy reform and honest governance for countries to develop and avoid civil war
Failed or Failing States

-1990s Afganistan
-A state that has unsuccessful self-governance and an inability to provide adequately for citizens
-Ineffective political system
-Absence of honest judicial system and law enforcement
-Red flags:
1. restriction on flow of information
2. subjugation of women
3. unable to accept own failure to compete in world
4. have extended family or clan as basis of social organization
5. dominance of restrictive religion
6. low value on education
7. low value on work
International Political Economy
1) Politics and economics are from 1970 on linked together forever, no turning back
2) Economic motives and activities are fundamental to the struggles among the nations
3) Primary actors = nation states in pursuit of power/wealth maximization
4) Free trade was not natural, it is a reflection of the international hegemons that were already in place
5) The emergence of the multinational corperation and free investment happens because of the political and economic interest of the United States.
Genuine Progress Indicator
An estimate of the factors that the economic establishment ignores (economy that ppl experience).
2) Crime, defensive expenditures, household/volunteer economy, etc
3) Provides substance to the gap between the economy limited by the commentators and the one that has brought increasing pain to others. Suggest the kinds of measurement that the federal gov can construct.
Structural Adjustment Policies
These are economic policies which countries must follow in order to qualify for IMF and world bank loans
1. Devalue currency
2. Reduce trade barriers
3. Cut governmental social programs
4. Reduce trade deficiency through more exports
5. Privatizations

Important when looking at the race to the bottom

Example: IMF loan
African Framework for Development
1) Strengthen and diversify production—recognizes the abilities of the poor to fill a large vacuum in the production of goods and provisions
2) Produce food for consumption, not just export
3) Improve the level of income and its pattern of distribution
4) Expenditure switching- now, put money into military rather than institutional building
5) Broaden tax base—tax incentives for small businesses
6) Community participation
7) Import substitution—in order to increase buying of domestic products, put high tax on imports (esp. luxury items)
The Green Critique
1) Quest for efficiency for developing nations breeds dependency on the developed world
2) Food self-sufficiency is given up to promote exports
3) Market and export-led strategies have condemned the less-developed countries to the traditional role of the colonized
4) Foreign aid ties lead to exploitation
5) People-centered development what is needed
6) Quality of life, not quality of consumption

Significance: This is significant because it is the first people-centered model that fully takes into account the demands placed on developing countries when attempting to modernize. It promotes a stronger civil society, relaxing some of the strict measures that may force a country deeper into debt and civil strife.
Modernization Theory
Modernization is a mixed blessing:
1) Medical advances have led to decreased infant mortality but increased longevity—very high population growth
2) Rapid urbanization weakening social order- breakdown of traditional societies and rapid unemployment
3) Industrial and environmental danger- deforestation, soil erosion, etc—freedom of the commons=destruction of the commons
4) The market-driven response or govt-driven policies to try to mitigate these mixed blessings
5) Leads into sustainable development- need both policies

Significance: Modernization is a mixed blessing, and the consequences for developing countries remain to be seen. While lifestyle and health will increase, there will be a much greater demand for scarce resources, a “destruction of the commons”, and overpopulation- only time will tell whether we can keep up with the demand for constant change.
• Example- Hardin, Tragedy of the Commons
1) Pessimistic, life-boat economics: only so many resourced for people in the boat; grabbing another person will overturn the boat
2) Notion that development aid is detrimental: development income, health care, etc worsens population and creates a resource problem
3) Growing population, consumption, and environmental stressed will increase social friction

Significance: may be more applicable now than ever because of the seven factors that Thomas Homer-Dixon talks about –the social and technical engineers in countries might not be able to supply the ever-increasing ingenuity required over an extended period
Ex. Simon
1) Faith that market-driven human ingenuity can always be tapped to allow the substitution of more abundant resources to produce the same end-use service
2) Natural resources not finite
3) Assumption of finiteness assumes upper limit to how much food world could produce
4) Every time there has been environmental problems, people have been a resource and circumvented scarcity—innovation
5) Scarcity and technological change are not unrelated
Significance: Opposite of Neo-Malthusians- optimists of the past, perhaps. Overlooking seven key factors talked about by Homer-Dixon, maybe humans will not be able to circumvent scarcity in the future with the constantly depleted resources that they are facing.
Tragedy of the Commons
Rational individuals do cost-benefit analysis
and often do things that are short term individually profitable but expensive
in the long term. It is significant because of finite resources, a world of
scarcity, and an idea of a global carrying capacity.
Debt Forgiveness
Case Study

It is significant because it determines how kind
countries such as the United States are to countries that are mired in poverty.
Is the continual pouring of funds into the floundering economies of countries
with corrupt leaders worth it? Will these countries ever be able to pay back
there debt or will they constantly be asking for debt forgiveness?
Sustainable Development
The will to promote development policies
that increase economic growth but sustain and expand the environmental resource
base without overburdening local populations: market-driven, government
sponsored. Many countries use sustainable development as a means to spur
economic growth in their countries.
The side of international politics that promotes continuity
while globalization promotes rapid changes. It is significant because it shows
how hegemons such as the United States can have a considerable influence on the
global scale.
Globalization processes
A set of highly
interconnected economic and political processes that have far reaching
implications for economic, political, and cultural transfer of ideas, people,
and goods across national bounderies. It is significant because globalization
is the main influence on global politics in our world today.
The supporters of real historical development
The supporters of mythical construction and internationalization
Washington Consensus
A set of neo-liberal policies that have been imposed on hapless countries by the Washington-based international institutions

1) Deregulation
2) Privatization
3) Openness
4) Unrestricted movement of capital
5) lower taxes
Presented as a formula for economic management to developing theories under American supervision. Therefore attacking the theory = attacking the United States
Complex Terrorism
Two key terror trends that make us an easy prey
1. The growing technological capacity of small groups and individuals to destroy things and people
2. The increasing vulnerability of our economic and technological
systems to carefully aimed attacks
Shows the vulnerability of modern, developed societies that have characteristics of complexity, interconnectedness, and concentration of wealth, tech, etc.

9.11 – terrorists easily found the information they needed through internet
Al Qaeda
1) Malleable missions
2) Cooperation with groups/figure for mix and match of capabilities
3) Leaderless network
4) Forge ties with traditional organized crime groups
5) Adopting innovative tactics
EIJ changed their goal from fighting the Egyptian rulers and turn the country into an Islamich state to fighting western countries.
These characteristics make terrorists harder to be destroyed; western countries need to show a similar adaptability.
The State of the States
Globalization is not a choice but rather a reality. Currently no one is in charge of globalization, but rather uncontrollable market forces rule. Means homogenization of prices, products, wages etc. Limits the effect of proximity. Role of the state is diminished as NGO’s become more important and states are forced to bend under pressure from globalization policies.
Believe that globalization is inevitable and a good thing. They want more greater if not complete free trade with as few restrictions as possible. Bill Clinton was an integrationist, and these views are consistent with those of the Washington Consensus.
These individuals wish to shut down globalization and view it as a harmful entity to the developing world. They see it as an American construct, designed to aid wealthy multi-national corporations, which often strive in America. The Zapatiota are an example of a group, which does not support the Integrationist policies.