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287 Cards in this Set

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True or False..minor injuries of the cheeks, lips and tongue heal spontaneously
True
The use of what type of sutures to repair injuries of the lips, cheek and tongue, will reduce disfigurement and improve function?
Tension sutures
Where should cut on the tongue be repaired?
On the dorsal surface
What is a sign of a cleft palate?
Milk runs out of the nostrils of the foal
Does a cleft palate usually involve the hard palate, soft palate or both?
Soft palate
Most foals with a cleft palate develop what other condition?
-aspiration pneumonia
Why does a cleft palate become more difficult to repair as the foal grows older?
Distance between incisors and palate increases
What sx technique give the best exposure for repair of a cleft palate?
Mandibular symphyisotomy
The esophagus is covered by which muscles?
-cricopharengeus
-thyrophatyngeus
What is the position of the esophagus in relationship to the trachea?
Dorsal to the trachea until the 4th cervical vertebrae, crosses obliquely to the left, reaches the median plane at the 6th c-vert to enter the thoracic inlet
What are the 4 layers of the esophagus?
-fibrous
-muscular (striated to base of heart and then smooth)
-sub mucosa
-mucosa
-no serosa
What type of vascular supply does the esophagus have?
Segmental with minimal collateral circulation
What complications can occur with esphogeal surgery?
-stricture formation
-incision breakdown
-laryngeal hemiplegia
What diagnostics are used in the examination of the esophagus?
-palpation
-stomach tube
-endoscope
-rads (plain, barium)
What are the most common areas for esophageal obstruction?
-anterior esophagus
-just anterior to the thoracic inlet
What are the clinical signs of obstruction?
-distress, anxiety, sweating
-repeated extension of the head and neck
-repeated attempts to swallow and or retching
-continuing attempts to eat
-food and water at nostrils
What are the medical management techniques of esophageal obstruction?
-many times the bolus will pass in several hours
-in the past horse was tied away form food and water
-prolonged presence of a bolus can cause tissue damage and secondary stricture
when does a water lavage work well on an obstruction?
When the bolus is of lush grass
(stomach tube passed to the obstruction)
What other methods can be used to remove an obstruction?
-remove though mouth with hand
-use an endoscope
-sx exposure
-esophagotomy
How is an incision in the esophagus closed?
-mucosa and submucosa are closed as one
-both interrupted and continuous patterns have been used
-knots are tied so they are in the lumen
What are the causes of esophageal stricture?
-external or internal trauma
-previous obstructions or perforation
-caustic anthelminitcs
How are esophageal strictures classified?
based on the layers of the wall involved
What layers does a mural stricture involve?
adventitia and muscular layers
What layers does a ring stricture involve?
mucosa and submucosa
What layers does an annular stricture involve?
all layera
Which sx approach is used if an esophageal stricture is mural?
Esophagomyotomy
When closing a Esophagomyotomy which layer is NOT sutured?
muscularis
When is a partial resection indicted?
A stricture the involves the mucosa and submucosa (ring)
What additional procedure is indicated in the case of a partial resection?
A cervical esophagostomy distal to the sx site
What sx approach is indicated in the case of a stricture that involves the entire esophagus (annular)
Complete resection
What is the longest length of esophagus that has ever been removed and documented?
3cm
What is the cause of an esophageal fistula?
-secondary to esophageal perforation of sx
What is the medical management approach to an esophageal fistula?
waiting several months, many heal in time, all will decrease in size
What is the sx approach for an esophageal diveticulum?
-approach as in a partial resection
-excision of the involved mucosa and submucosa
When would you perform a cervical esophagostomy?
-to feed an animal with an esophageal injury
-an animal that cannot swallow
What steps are involved in a cervical esophagostomy?
-pass a stomach tube
-dissect to mucosa of esophagus
-place a small stomach tube
-attach tube to skin
-partial closure to allow drainage
What % of horses with acute abdomen will respond to medical tx?
90-95%
What is the preferred sx approach to the abdomen for sx exploration? An why?
Ventral midline
-allows better visualization
What suture pattern is used to close a ventral midline incision?
Surgeon's preference....continuous or interrupted
Why do some prefer a paramedian approach to the abdomen?
-less chance of wound breakdown
-but less exposure and more hemorrhage
What is recommended for the closure of the paramedian approach?
Close the superficial and deep sheath of the rectus muslce
A flank approach to the abdomen can be performed standing or in lateral recumbency. When is a flank approach used?
To make a dx, but many times correction of a problem requires a ventral midline approach
What is meant by a modified grid approach?
Muscles are divided along the direction of their fibers...not incised
Why is a suction drain recommended when closing a paramedian incision?
To reduce the formation of a seroma
Surgically, how do you locate and evaluate the large colon?
-palpate the mesenteric attachment of the right dorsal colon and cecum, determine if there is a volvulus
-follow 1 of the ventral bands anterior to the sternal flexure and then caudal to the pelvic flexure
Where do you start when you examine the small intestines?
At the cecum
How do you locate the cecum?
-identicy the right ventral colon and follow the cecocolic ligment to the cecum
Can you start cranially to examine the small intestine?
Yes but is difficult to do
What step should you take if you suspect gastric dilation prior to sx?
pass a stomach tube
How do you confirm the dx of a gastric rupture surgically?
ingesta is free in the peritoneal cavity
What is the only option in the case of gastric rupture and contamination?
euthanasia
Gastric ulceration and resulting pyloric stenosis occurs in which age of horse?
foals
What conditions can predispose a foal to Gastric ulceration and resulting pyloric stenosis?
-stress
-NSAIDS
What are the signs of Gastric ulceration and resulting pyloric stenosis in a foal?
-off feed
-abd pain
-grinding teethm salivate
Where do the ulcers occur?
in the pylorus or anterior duodenum
In the case of Gastric ulceration and resulting pyloric stenosis in a foal, what sx correction is taken?
A gastrojejunostomy
True or false, removal of a neoplastic area of the equine stomach is normally not performed.
True
When is an obstruction of the small intestines considered to be a simple obstruction?
When it does not compromise blood supply
What happens in the small intestines as a result of an obstruction?
Intestinal fluid (100 L/day) cannot move past the obstruction, cause the intestine anterior to the obstruction to dilate excessively
What are the clinical signs caused by dilation?
-pain
-decreased perfusion
-lactic acid acidosis
-reflux of fluid into the stomach
-gastric rupture
What can cause an impaction of the small intestines in foals and weanlings?
Ascarids
An adhesion may occur as a complication to sx, what is the tx for an adhesion?
-identify and break down the adhesion
-suture the serosa over the damage area
-it not possible to cover the defect in the serosa, use heparin, carboxymethylcellusoe
-divert the intestinal content around the adhesion
What is a pedunculated lipoma?
Older horses may develop a lipoma on a stalk
-wraps around a segment of bowel causing obstruction
What are the suggested causes of impaction of the distal ileum?
-muscular hypertrophy
-lack of proper motility
-character of feedstuff (coastal hay)
Abdominal abscess is caused by what?
An adhesion
What is the best method of management of an abdominal abscess?
Divert the flow of ingesta around the adhesion and placing the horse on long term abx
In the case of anterior enteritis, why might you sx explore the abd?
For signs of a mechanical obstruction
In anterior enteritis what procedure should you do with the excessive amount of fluid that is found?
Force it into the cecum
Another technique is the remove excessive gas from the cecum. What is the rationale to these techniques?
Allow the diseased small intestine time to heal
What is a strangulating obstruction of the small intestines?
An obstruction in which there is a mechanical blockage and a compromise to blood flow
True or False....Intussusception of the bowel in more common in older horses.
False, more common in foals
What is the definition of an intestinal volvulus?
Twisting of a segment of bowel on its mesentary so as to obstruct blood flow and passage of intestinal contents
In order to potentially correct the volvulus and leave the bowel in place sx must take place how quickly after occurrence?
6 hours
Internal hernias of the epiploic foramen occur more often in older horses. Sx how do you located the foramen?
-horse in dorsal recumbency
-feel along the right medial surface of the liver at 9 0'clock position, finger will enter the foramen
Commonly the jejunum passes in which direction into the omental bursa?
From left to right
Prior to pulling the bowel back from the foramen is it sometimes necessary to do what?
Perform an enterotomy and drain the bowel
Why are mesenteric defects a dx problem?
The hole can be anywhere and difficult to locate
What is a Meckel's Diverticulum?
A persistance of the omphalomesenteric duct
Where is Meckel's Diverticulum located?
A finger like diverticulum 2cm in diameter and 6cm long connecting the antimesenteric surface of the ileum to the body wall in the area of the umbilicus
Meckel's diverticulum can become impacted and rupture or can serve as an axis for what condition?
Volvulus
What structure forms a mesodiverticular band?
Persistance of the distal vitelline artery and associated mesentary
Is there greater potential for a saml or a large umbilical hernia to cause an acute abdomen?
A small hernia
A hernia clamp is applied to an animal of what age?
1 1/2 years old
-sx closure is done at weaning...6 months)
An umbilical hernia in a foal could correct itself in time if it is what size?
If the ring is less than 3cm diameter
What other techniques have been suggested for umbilical hernias?
-time
-application of external pressure
-injection of mild irritant
-hernia clamp
In the sx closure of an umbilical hernia, what type of incision is made?
Elliptical skin incision
Why aren't ventral hernias associated with an acute abdomen?
The ring is too large to cause strangulation of the bowel
A large ventral hernia may require the use of what sx supply?
Polypropylene mesh
Where is the mesh placed?
-close the peritoneum
-place mesh between peritoneum and the abdominal wall.,,suture in place
What other current method has be used to repair hernias?
Laporoscope
In the case of a diaphragmatic hernia, the diaphragm often shows evidence of chronic damage...such as from what?
parasites
If a repair of a diaphragmatic hernia is attempted what type of breathing assistance is needed?
Positive pressure
When would you consider sx for a simple obstruction of the colon?
Abdominal pain for more than 24 hours
Where do most impactions of the colon occur?
At the pelvic flexure of the right dorsal colon
Most impactions are handled medically, surgically how would an impaction be treated?
-ventral midline lap
-deliver pelvic flexure from abdomen
-enterotomy of the pelvic flexure
-use a hose to flush
-close
Impaction sof the cecum are usually a result of a motility problem. If handled surgically, a better prognosis is from performing what additional procedure (along with the lap and enterotomy)
-cecocolostomy
-jejunocolostomy
to bypass the cecum
What is the usual location to find an enterolith?
Right dorsal colon
(transverse or small also)
Which portion of the colon can get trapped over the nephrosplenic ligament?
the left
True or False..horses with nephropslenic ligament entrapment don't show much pain.
True
How can a nephropslenic ligament entrapment be managed medically?
-short acting general anesthesia
-pick horse up by its legs allow the colon to move dorsally
-put horse on right side rol to dorsal recumbency and then to left lat and sternal
-check with U/S
How is a nephropslenic ligament entrapment corrected surgically?
-ventral midline lap
-force colon dorsal and lat to free it from the ligament
Torsion and volvulus of the large colon typically occur at what sites?
diaphragmatic and sternal flexures
In repairing a volvulus of the colon or cecum surgically, it is best to do what during the repair?
enterotomy and empty the contents
How much of the large intestine can be removed from a horse and they still do well?
90%
Rectal prolapse occur more often in which species?
Pigs
What are the potential causes of rectal prolapse?
-estrogens in feed relax anal sphincter
-high protein diets
-abx feeding irritates anal region
-limited exercise
-multiple bull housing
What are the 2 types of rectal prolapse that can occur?
-prolapse of the mucosa only
-evagination of the rectum
What route of anesthesia is used in pigs during sx repair of a rectal prolapse?
Lumbosacral epidural- the head down position
EWhat sx technique is used in the case of a mucosa prolapse?
replace and put in a purse string suture
When is amputation of the rectum, performed?
When there is evagination of the rectum
How are sutures placed for amputation of the rectum?
mattress sutures place in a transverse plane
What sx device can be used that is sturured tightly into place causing a portion of the rectum to slough off?
A rectal ring
Rectal rupture is a problem seen in which species?
Horses
What are the causes of rectal rupture?
-misdirection of the penis
-iatrogenic during a rectal exam
During a rectal exam what should you so as the horse strains?
allow the hand to be pushed caudally
What is considered a grade 1 rectal tear?
through the mucosa and submucosa
What is considered a grade 2 rectal tear?
through the muscularis...muscosa intact
What is considered a grade 3 rectal tear?
through the mucosa and muscularis
What is considered a grade 4 rectal tear?
Through mucosa, muscularis and serosa
What is the tx for a grade 1 - 2 tear?
-mineral oil
-antibiotics
-limited hay
-careful observation
How can a grade 3 rectal tear be managed?
-suture
-colostomy
-inserting a ring with a rectal sleeve to protect the area of the rectum
In a left flank approach n the bovine, what benefit does the rumen give the surgeon?
Is space occupying, holds the intestines out of the way
When might you choose a paramedian abdominal incision in a bovine?
for specific conditions such as LDA, RDA
What types of anesthesia are used in bovine GI sx?
-local: line block, inverted L
-regional: paravert, distal
-general
What is a common cause of LDA in bovine?
dietary changes immediately prepartum or in the early post partum period
-too little fiber
-subclinical hypocalcemia
-mechanical factors
What is the approach in sx correction of a LDA?
Left flank lap and abomasopexy
How is the abosmasopexy performed?
-fixation sutures on the greater curve of abomasum
-passed out between xiphoid and right milk well
-tied together
Which approach is taken if an abomasal ulcer is suspected?
Right flank laparotomy and pylorplasty or omentopexy
What are the advantages to the Right flank laparotomy and pylorplasty or omentopexy?
-does not require an assistant
-care be performed by a shorter armed surgeon
What is the sx approach if the ping is located on the left side very low?
Right paramedian lap and abomasopexy
What is the disadvantage to a blind suturing technique?
Can miss the abomasum and entrap other organs
When facing a cow from the right, what is the appearnce of a RDA?
90 degree clockwise rotation
When facing a cow from the right what is the position of a abomasal volvulus/torsion?
180-270 degree counter clockwise rotation
What are the only hallow organs on the right side of a bovine that cannot routinely result in a ping on the right side?
-reticulum
-omasum
-bladder
What procedure will help determine which organ is pinging?
Rectal palpation
What e'lyte and acid base abnormalities are associated with RDA?
-metabolic alkalosis
-hypochloremia
-hypokalemia
In the repair of a volvulus/torsion is fluid decompression performed?
No, risk of contamination
Cecal dilation or torsion will cause a ping on which side?
Right
What might you feel on rectal palpation of a cecal dilation/torsion?
6-10" diameter blind ended pouch or several loops of bowel that size
True or False....cecal dilation/torsion is one of the few conditions in the bovine that results in colicky pain
True
How is a cecal dilation/torsion repaired surgically?
exteriorize the apex of the cecum, perform cecotomy and empty contents
What will rectal palpation reveal in the case of intussusception in a cow?
6-12" long sausage shaped mass
What type of feces will be seen with an intussusception?
Dark. tarry
why is the intussusception in an adult bovine short in length?
Due to short mesentary and large amount of mesenteric fat
Where is an intussusception usually located in the adult bovine?
Jejuno-ileum portion of the small intestine..also called the flange
what sx correction is used to tx intussusception?
resection and anastomosis
What are the post op care steps needed in sx tx of intussusception?
-postop abx
-low fiber diet 5-7 post op
-monitor hydration
What are the indications for a rumenotomy?
-traumatic reticuloperitonitis
-grain overload
-ingested toxins
What is the only acceptabel sx positon for a rumenotomy?
Left flank lap with patient standing
How do you affix the rumen so it doesn't move during sx?
-suture to skin
-rumenotomy shroud
-Weingart's apparatus
-position with towel clamps
What are the potential complicatiosn to rumen sx?
-peritonitis
-rumen fistula formation
What the clinical signs/finding that help you to dx a small intestine or mesenteric volvulus?
-acute abdomen
-significant abdominal distention in all quadrants
-rectal palpation: multiple distended loops of small bowel
Upon laparotomy what will you find in the case of a small intestine/mesenteric volvulius?
Torsion at or near the root of the mesentary
Why is it best to repair a small intestine/mesenteric volvulius in lateral recumbency?
A standing patient will become recumbent from the pain of mesenteric traction
What are the laparotomy findings in a calf with atresia ani? (a heritable condition)
-distended intestines proximal to the rectum and descending colon
-proximal end of the artetic bowel may be difficult to identify
In which segment of the bowel does atresia coli usually affect?
spiral colon
True or False...intussusception in the bovine neonate is not as acute of a condition as in the adult.
False- IS an acute condition in the neonate
What is the most common presenting sign of LDA in a calf?
Chronic bloat
What is the urachus?
Vestigial part of the bladder
The 2 umbilical arteries become what structures in the neonate?
Lateral or round ligaments of the bladder
Te round ligament of the bladder is which neonatal remnant?
Umbilical vein
What is the most common congenital defect in cattle?
Uncomplicated umbilical hernia
In which breed is it more common?
Holstein
is a heritable conditon
What are the physical findings of a Uncomplicated umbilical hernia?
-completely reducible with a palpable ring
-usually no systemic illness
(strangulation may occur)
A Uncomplicated umbilical hernia can cause obstruction of outflow and result in what e'lyte condition?
-hypochloremic, hypokalemix metabolic alkalosis
What is another name for a parietal hernia?
Richter's hernia
Which species is more likely to have an umbilical hernia with a fibrous core or abscess?
Calves more than foals
Plapation of the umbilical hernia with a fibrous core or abscess reveals what?
A reducible dorsal hernia and a firm nonreducible ventral portion to the skin
Which organisms are most commonly involved in an umbilical hernia infection?
-corynebacterium pyogenes
-E coli, proteus, enterococcus, staph, strep
What is the condition of the calf with an umbilical infection?
Unthrifty, may have concurrent dz
What is the management appraoch for an umbilical abscess?
lance, drain, flush
An enlarged umbilical stump is secondary to what conditions?
-omphalitis
-persistent patent urachus
-tx of the umbilicus with harsh antiseptics
What dx techniques are used to define an umbilical hernia?
-palpation
-U/S
-contrast rads
-aspiration
-culture
-CBC
If sx for an umbilical hernia is performed, what type of incision is made?
-intial finger size to diagnose the problem
-elliptical or half moon (for males)
Can the umbilical veins or arteries be removed if they are involved in the problem?
Yes
Dehorning of young goats is achieved with what device?
Electric dehorner
Post dehorning and/or tail docking, what drug should be given?
tetanus antitoxin
What tx options are available for uroliths obstructing the distal bend of the sigmoid flexure of the urethra?
-urethrostomy
-penile amputation
-tube cystotomy
What is "balling"?
A breeding male pig ejaculates into the preputial diverticulum
Why is castration of a pot bellied pig handled in the same manner as a dog castration (pre scrotal incision)?
Evisceration may occur
Why are llama fighting teeth removed?
-prevent injury during fighting
-treat root abscesses
What technique can be used if you don't want to remove the teeth in a llama?
Blunt the canine teeth with a gigli wire and a rasp
Which is the most common angular limb deformity of llamas?
Carpal valgus
When performing periosteal stripping for limb deformity, which side is stripped?
Strip the concave side, bridge the convex side
At a canter, when does a horse expire the air in his lungs?
When the front feet hit the ground
At what location is a tracheal wash performed?
Junction between the upper and middle 1/3 where the sternomandibularis muscle bifurcates
When is a thoracocentesis performed?
To evaluate the fluid in the pleural space in the case of lower respiratory tract dz
What is an atheroma?
An epidermal inclusion cyst located in the posterior dorsal aspect of the false nostril- interferes with air passage
What 3 methods can be used to tx an atheroma?
-extirpation through the skin: incise the skin and remove it

-Drain from within the false nostril
-extirpation through the mucosa: use a burr to remove lining of cyst
How can a fluttering alae fold be tx?
Can be removed under general anesthesia (dx first by suturong the fold to the false nostril to see if its the cause of the exercise intolerance)
Resection of the nasal septum proceudre is associated with conisderable blood loss, so the nostrils as packed during the procedure. because of this, what other procedure is necessary?
A tracheotomy
when cutting the nasal septum, how much do you leave?
5cm to support the nostrils
What technique can be used to remove the nasal septum that results in less blood loss?
use a gigli wire
What is a nasal polyp?
pedunculated inflammatory grwoths arising from the nasal mucosa
True or false...a nasal polyp that is not completely removed will recur.
True
What are the usual clinical signs of sinusitis?
-unilateral mucopurulent discharge
-usually no systemic involvement
Sinusitis can be secondary to what conditions?
-dieseased teeth
-fractures
-neoplasia
True or false.... primary sinusitis will usually improve with parenteral abx?
True
Which teeth are usually the cause of sinusitis?
Diseases upper 4th premolars and molars--remove by repulsion
What is a clinical sign of ethmoid hematoma?
Epistaxis (intermittent)
Endiscopic evaluation of an ethmoid hematoma will show what?
-a dark green lesion involving the ethmoid turbinate
Which methoda can be used to tx an ethmoid hematoma?
-remove with laser sx
-remove through a frontal sinusostomy
-Injection of 10% formalin controls but does not cure the condition
What is the etiology of pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia?
Chronic respiratory infection usually secondary to viral infection
In which horses is pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia seen most often?
2 year old racing horses
Do horses with pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia show signs of systemic dz?
No
How is pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia dx?
Endoscopic exam
How is pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia treated medically/
-rest for 60-90 days
-abx and corticosteroids
-topical tx
What is the sx tx fro pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia ?
-chemical cuatery of the follicles
-50% trichloroacetate or phenol
- cryo tx
-electrocautery
What happens during the dorsal displacement of the soft palate?
The larynx slips out of the hole in the palate so that the soft palate is dorsal to the epiglottis- causing an airway obstruction
Dorsal displacement can by caused by what?
-hyperexcitability
-increased activity of the sternothyroideus muscles
What is the primary clinical sign of dorsal displacement?
Expiratory dyspnea and noise
("choking up")
During endoscopic exam, how might you cause the displacement to occur?
Occlusion of the nostrils
What other condition must you differentiate dorsal displacement from?
Epiglottic entrapment
What type of device can you try to manage the displacement without sx?
-tongue tie and a straight
-cornell collar
What sx techniques have been used for dorsal displacement?
Section of of the sternohyoideus muscle removed
What is a stphylectomy?
partial soft palate resection- prevents epiglottis from "hanging up" on the soft palate
What sx technique is used for dorsal displacement that includes suturing to the basihyoid?
Tie forward
Congential hypoplasia of the epiglottis is seen in which breed and when?
SB, when training starts
What are the arytenoepiglottic folds?
bands of mucous membranes under th epiglottis which are attached to the later aspect- entrapment may be caused by excess tissue or hypoplastic epiglottis
What are the clinical signs of epiglottic entrapment?
-inspiratory and expiratory dyspnea and noise
-exercise intolerance
-coughing
What sx is preferred for epiglottic entrapment for a horse in training?
Slit the fold
(recurrence rate of 60%)
Where do epiglottic cysts develop
A congenital condition they develop on the ventral aspect of the epiglottis
What are the clinical signs of an epiglottic cyst?
-cyst can become displaced dorsally and partially occlude the airway
How is an epiglottic cyst removed?
-appraoch the pharynx through the cricocartilage membrane and remove
-use a snare and electrocautery
Right laryngeal hemiplagia is usually a result of what complication?
IV injection
Left laryngeal hemiplagia is a dysfunction of which nereve?
left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Horses of what physical attribute all have some lack of innervation causing subclinical involvement.
Over 15 1/2 hands
large TB males
What effect does the lack of innervation have?
Causes atrophy of the circoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle
What are the clinical signs of left laryngeal hemiplagia?
Inspiratory noise and exercise intolerance
-horse fades at the end of a race
The noise is made during inspiration, how do you know when a horse is inhaling?
Nostrils flare
What should you feel on palpation of the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle?
Atrophy makes the muscular process more apparent
What other methods have been used to dx laryngeal hemiplagia?
-grunt to the stick
-endoscope
-slap test
What is a ventriculectomy?
Sx removal of the laryngeal saccules
-reduces inspiratory noise, 60% will be sound
How is the lining of the saccule removed?
with a burr
What procedure for laryngeal hemiplagia improves performance?
Arytenoidpexy (tie back)
What is the overall goal of an arytenoidpexy?
To tie the arytenoid out of the airway
What sx procedure is used when an arytenoidpexy and removal of the laryngeal ventricle have not been successful?
Subtotal aryetnoidectomy
What is a neuromuscular pedicle graft?
Nerve ends and muscle pedicles of the first cervical nerve are implanted onto the atrophied cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle for innervation
The 1st cervial nerve innervates which muscle?
Omohyoideus---accessory muscle of inspiration
Which bacterial organism is chondritis of the arytenoid cartiage most commonly associated?
Strep
How is chondritis of the arytenoid cartiage dx?
With an endoscope...can be confused with laryngeal hemiplagia
What is a Type II partial arytenoidectomy?
Removal of protruberances which project into the airway
What is a Type I partial arytenoidectomy?
removal of the body of the arytenoid and leave the muscular and corniculate processes
What is a Type II Corniculoarytenoidectomy?
Remove the body leave the muscular process
What is a Type 1 Corniculoarytenoidectomy?
remove the entire arytenoid cartilage
Empyema of the guttural pouch is most commonly secondary to what type of infection?
beta hemolytic streptococci
What are the clinial signs of GP empyema?
-unilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge
-marked swelling of the throat latch
How do you confirm a Dx of GP empyema?
-endoscopic exam
-catheterize the pouch to confrim presence of exudate
-rads
Medical management of GP empyema includes flushing the pouch daily. What fluids do you NOT flush with?
never flush with anything you wouldn't put in your eye...irritation of the pouch may cause extreme pharyngeal dysfunction
is sx management of GP empyema needed?
rarely--is so use the Viborg's or modified White House approach
What are the boundaries of Viborg's triangle?
dorsally: tendon of the sternomandibularis
ventral: linguofacial vein
rostral: ramus of the mandible
What is the advantage to the White House technique?
Both pouches are drained with 1 incision
When is a hyovertebrotomy procedure indicated?
Only when there are extremely large hard chondroids in the pouch
Tympany of the guttural pouches is due to a malfunction of what?
Pharyngeal orifice- common in Arabs
What are the clinical signs of tympany of the GP?
-marked swelling in the parotid area in the young animal
What procedure is used to determine if tympany is uni or bilateral?
Unilateral catheterization of the pharyngeal orifice--if distention resolves the problem is unilateral
-contrats rads are helpful
What is the sx procedure is GP tympany in unilateral?
fenestrate the median septum so that air can exit through the normal pharyngeal orifice
What is the approach if both pouches are involved?
Sx remove or modify the medial side of the pharyngeal opening to the GP on both sides or modify one and fenstrate the septum
Which organism is seen most often as a cause of GP mycosis?
Aspergillus
What is the clinical sign of GP mycosis?
Intermittent spontaneous epistaxis
What is the cause of the epistaxis?
damage to the internal carotid artery
What is the medical management approach to GP mycosis?
DAily topical application of enilconazole
What sx technique is considered in the tx of GP mycosis?
Occulsion of the carotid artery
What are the indications for a short term tracheotomy in a horse?
-obstructions of the upper airway
-administration of gas anesthesia
What is another term form cribbing?
Wind Sucking
What is cribbing?
A vice that is associated with a horse grasping a fixed object with the incisors and then flexing the neck pulling backwards and swallowing air
What sx procedures have been attempted to stop a horse from cribbing?
Forsell's procedure: removal of a 4 inch section of all muscles between the jugulars
In the modified Forsell's technique, it is important to identify which 2 muscled of the neck?
Combined sternohyoid and omohyoid just ventral to the larynx
How are obstructions to the flow of milk dx?
-palpation
-use of a graduated rod
-culture
-imaging
-theloscopy
Teat lacerations that are how old respond well to primary closure?
less than 12 hours
What is the disadvantage to using a longitudinal or transverse incision for closure of a teal laceration?
-more damage to blood vessels, more edema
-greater wound breakdown
What preop care is needed for teat lacerations?
-all lacs should be considered contaminated
-preop abx are indicated
Which abx is typically used?
Procaine Pen G
What sedation protocol is used for repair of teat lacs?
xylazine
ketamine
butorphanol
What position is used for teat lac repair?
right lateral recumbency is preferred
The mucosa and submuscosa and opposed using what type of suture material?
Synthetic absorbable
True or false...post repair for teat laceration, hand milking is preferred?
False---hand milking is contraindicated
When might a teat fistula develop?
When a laceration heals by 2nd intention
How long does it take for a fistula to heal?
4 months
What is the most frequent congenital teat anomaly in cows?
Supernumary teats
When are Supernumary teats a problem?
-when the suprenumery teat is close to the normal teats
-when the produce milk
What is the usual procedure for Supernumary teats?
Removed when heifers are 6 months old
What is the typical cause of blunt end trauma to a teat?
Cow steps on her own teat
If no mastitis is present with a blunt end trauma, what is the course of tx?
a period or rest
What is the tx for a tight streak canal that has not responded to rest?
Cut with a Hug knife
What is the usual cause of an obstruction in the rosette of Furstenberg?
Tissue flaps
What is the approach for the removal of milk stones?
-forced or by hand milking
-may need to crush with foceps prior to removal