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15 Cards in this Set

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Define: a consistent increase in systolic BP above 140 and/or diastolic BP above 90.
Hypertension
Describe the two components of the incidence of hypertension.
50-55 million and it increases with age.
What are the two types of hypertension?
Primary and secondary
What distinguishes secondary from primary?
Secondary hypertension is where the cause is known and primary is where there is no definitve cause
What is the relative incidence of secondary hypertension?
10%
What is the relative incidence of primary hypertension?
90%
Give one important example of secondary hypertension.
Renal hypertension: Due to the release of renin, which acts on angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I (AI)
What are the three actions of angiotensin II?
a. Constricts arterioles b. stimulates sympatho-adrenal system c. increases aldosterone secretion
Renal, salt, vasodilator/vasoconstrictor imbalance, and genetic hypotheses are all examples of primary or secondary hypertension?
Primary (essential) hypertension
Describe the two failures of negative feedback mechanisms in controlling blood pressure.
1. In spite of elevated BP, the number of impulses generated by baroreceptors remains normal ("resetting" of baroreceptors) 2. In spite of elevated BP, GFR (glomerular filtration rate) remains normal.
Describe CO and TPR in the hemodynamics of the established stage of hypertension.
CO is normal, TPR is elevated due to constriction of arterioles
In the established stage of hypertension, why or why not?
BF is normal in most vascular beds, b/c there is a proprotional increase in BP and TPR.
How does the venous system change in hypertension?
Venous pressure is normal, and compliance is decreased
What does an increased release of renin cause?
Converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
What does angiotensin I eventually become via an enzyme?
Angiotensin II.