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187 Cards in this Set

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Systematic Observation (Systematic Observation)
Observes behavior in natural context; S- reflects everyday behavior, W- no control over conditions of observation, accuracy reduced by observer and their bias
Structured Observation (Systematic Observation)
Observation in laboratory setting with regulated conditions; S- equal opportunity to display certain behaviors. W- accuracy reduced as actions may not reflect everyday life and include observer bias
Clinical Interview (Self-Reports)
Flexible interviewing procedure; S- lots of information, comes close to the way the participant thinks, W- flexible interviews make comparing participants difficult; inconsistent results
Structured interviews /questionnaires/ tests (Self-Reports)
Each participant is asked the same questions in the same way; S- permits comparisons of results, specified answers, W- information lacks depth, subject to inaccurate reporting
Psychophysiological Methods
measure relationship between psychological processes and behavior; S- reveal central nervous system structures that contribute to development and individual differences; W- cannot reveal the meaning of autonomic brain activity, many things influence psychological responses
Clinical or Case Study Method
Full psychological profile obtained by interviews, observations, test scores, and psycho-physiological processes; S- rich descriptive insights, W- may be biased, cannot be applied to others
Ethnography
Observation of a culture or distinct social group by making extensive field notes in attempt to capture values and social processes; S- more complete description than can be obtained by one process alone, W- may be biased, cannot be applied to settings other than the ones studied.
Event Sampling
Observer records all instances of a specific event
Time Sampling
researcher records whether certain behaviors occur during a sample of short intervals
Observer Influence
effects of the observer on the behavior studied
Observer Bias
observers are aware of the purposes of a study, they may see what they want to see rather than what is actually happening
Reliability
refers to the consistency, ore repeatability, of measures of behavior
Validity
they must accurately measure characteristics that the researcher has set out to measure
Internal validity
degree to which conditions internal to the design of a study permit an accurate test or the researcher's hypothesis or question
External Validity
Extent to which findings generalize to settings and participants outside the original study
Correlational Design
Obtains information without altering experiences; S- permits study of relationships between variables, W- does not permit inferences about cause-and-effect
Correlation Coefficient
Number that describes how two measures, or variables, are associated with each other (+1.00 to -1.00)
Experimental Design
Permits interferences about cause and effect as researchers use evenhanded procedures to assign people to 2+ research conditions
Independent Variable
Factor that the researcher expects to cause changes to other factors
Dependent Variable
what investigators expect to be influenced by the independent variable
Confounding Variables
so closely associated that their effects on the outcome can't be distinguished
Random Assignment
assigns participants to conditions randomly and increases the chances that characteristics of participants will be equally distributed across treatment groups
Laboratory Experiment
Conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and uses independent and dependent variables; S- permits inferences about cause-and-effect; findings may not generalize to the real world
Matching
Procedure in which participants are measured ahead of time and deliberately matched to certain circumstances based on characteristics that are likely to distort results
Field Experiment
Investigator randomly assigns participants to treatment conditions in natural settings; S- permits generalization of findings to real world, W- control over treatment is weaker than in a lab experiment
Natural or quasi-, Experiment
Comparison of already existing treatments in the real world, carefully selecting participants with like characteristics; S- permits study of real-world conditions that cannot be manipulated in experiments, W- findings may be due to alternate variables
Longitudinal Design
Investigator studies the same group of participants repeatedly at different ages; S- study of common patterns and development between early and later ages, W- age-related changes may be distorted by biased sampling, selective attrition, practice effects, and cohort effects
Cross-sectional Design
Investigator studies groups of participants differing in age at the same time; S- more efficient than longitudinal design, not plagued by long term complications, W- does not permit study individual trends, cohort effects
Sequential Design
Investigator conducts cross-sectional studies at varying times, S- permits longitudinal and cross-sectional studies and tracks age related changes, W- may have the same weaknesses as long. or cross-sec. studies
Microgenetic Design
Investigator presents children with novel task and follows their mastery over closely spaced sessions. S- insight into how change occurs, W- requires intensive study of participants, lots of time, practice effects may distort
Biased Sampling
failure to enlist participants who represent population of interest
Selective Attrition
Participants may move away or drop out of studies and the ones who remain are likely to differ in important ways
Practice Effects
Improvement in test taking skills of participants or becoming accustomed to testing procedures can effect results
Cohort Effects
Effects of cultural or historical conditions; may make findings inapplicable to other children developing at other times
Protection from Harm
Researchers must seek opinions of others to determine if a study may have harmful effects on participants
Informed Consent
All research participants have the right to have the aspects of the research; parents and legal guardians may need to consent as well; Children and parents/guardians maintain the right to discontinue research at any time
Privacy
right to concealment of their identity in the research in any form
Knowledge of Results
They have the right to be informed of the results at their level of understanding
Beneficial Treatments
Children in control groups have the right to obtain alternative beneficial treatment when participating in an experiment which entails beneficial treatment
Risks-versus-benefits Ratio
weighing costs to participants in terms of convenience and possible psychological or physical injury against the study's value for advancing in knowledge and improving conditions of life
Debriefing
researcher provides a full account and justification of the activities
Child Development
an area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence
Developmental Science
Child development is part of this interdisciplinary field
Domains
Physical, cognitive, and emotional and social
Prenatal period
conception to birth
Infancy and toddlerhood
birth to two years
Early Childhood
2 - 6 years
Middle Childhood
6 - 11 years
Adolescence
11 - 18 years
Emerging Adulthood
18 - 25 years
Theory
orderly integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
Continuous Development
gradually adding more of same types of skills that were there to begin with
Discontinuous
new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
Stages
qualitative changes in thinking, feelings and behaving that characterize specific periods of development
Contexts
unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change
Nature vs. Nurture
Genetics or environment
Resilience
the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development
Medieval View of Childhood
Children are vulnerable beings; sometimes depicted as portraying the devil and in need of purification
Reformation View of Childhood
Children are born evil and need to be civilized
Tabula Rasa
Blank slate, John Locke
Noble Savages
Jean-Jaques Rousseau, naturally endowed with sense of right and wrong with an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth
Maturation
genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth
Darwin
Natural selection, survival of the fittest
Normative Approach
measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individual and age related averages, are computed and represent typical development
Psychoanalytic perspective
Children move through a series of changes in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations; Resolution of these conflicts determines person's ability to learn, get along with others and cope with anxiety
Psychosexual Theory
Emphasizes that how parents manage their child's sexual and agrressive behavior in the first few years of life is crucial to development
Oral
Birth - 1 year
Anal
1 - 3 years
Phallic
3 - 6 years
Latency
6 - 11 years
Genital
Adolescence
Psychosocial Theory
Erikson; emphasized that in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, ego makes positive contributions to development, acquiring attitudes and skills at each stage that make the individual an active, contributing member of society
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
Birth - 1 year
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
1 - 3 years
Initiative vs. guilt
3 - 6 years
Industry vs. inferiority
6 - 11 years
Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Adolescence
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young Adulthood
Generativity vs. stagnation
Middle adulthood
Integrity vs. Despair
Old age
Behaviorism
directly observable events (stimuli and responses, are the appropriate focus of study
Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura; emphasized modeling, otherwise known as imitation or observational learning, as a powerful source of development
Behavior modification
procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore the world;
Sensorimotor
Birth - 2 years; think by acting on the world using their senses
Preoperational
2 - 7 years; use symbols to represent earlier discoveries; development of language, make believe play, etc.
Concrete Operational
7 - 11 years; reasoning becomes logical and better organized
Formal Operational
11 years on; capacity for abstract, systematic thinking enables stronger problem solving abilities; can evaluate logic of statements
Information Processing
Views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child's cognitive processing and behavioral patterns
Ethology
concerned with the adaptive, or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history
Sensitive Period
A time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences; boundaries are less well defined than those of a critical period; development can occur later but is hard to induce
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
Seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as though competencies change with age
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
how culture--values beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group--is transmitted to the next generation. Social interaction is necessary for children to acquire ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture
Ecological Systems Theory
Views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment
Microsystem
Activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings (physical attributes, personalities, capacities)
Mesosystem
Second level of Bronfenbrenner's model encompasses connections between microsystems (home, school, neighborhood, child-care center)
Exosystem
consists of social settings that do not contain children but that nevertheless affect the children's experiences in immediate settings (parents' work places, religious institutions, health and welfare services)
Macrosystem
outermost level of Bronfenbrenner's model consisting of cultural values, laws, customs and resources
Chronosystem
Temporal Dimension of Bronfenbrenner's model; changes in life events can be imposed on the child and can arise from within them since as children get older they select, modify and create many of their own settings and experiences
Dynamic Systems Perspective
Mind, body and physical and social worlds from and integrated system that guides mastery of new skills; system is dynamic (constantly in motion); A change in any part of it disrupts the current organism-environment relationship. When this happens, the child actively reorganizes her behavior so the components of the system work together again but in a more complex way
Psychoanalytic Perspective (Freud)
Discontinuous; one course; nature and nurture;
Behaviorism
Continuous; many possible courses; emphasis on nurture
Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory
Discontinuous; One course; Nature and nurture
Information Processing
Continuous; One Course; Nature and Nurture
Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
Continuous and Discontinuous; One Course; Nature and Nurture
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Continuous and Discontinuous; Many possible courses; Nature and Nurture
Ecological Systems Theory
Many possible courses; Nature and Nurture
Dynamic Systems Perspective
Continuous and discontinuous; Many courses; Nature and Nurture
Social Policy
any planned set of actions by a group, institution or governing body directed at attaining a social goal
Public Policy
Laws and government programs aimed at improving current conditions
Individualistic Societies
people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
Collectivist Societies
People define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals
Phenotypes
Directly observable characteristics
Genotype
complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics
Chromosomes
rod-like structures that store and transmit genetic information
DNA
composed of Chromosomes and forms a double helix
Gene
segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome
Mitosis
The process through which DNA duplicates itself
Gametes
sex cells; sperm and ovum
Meiosis
cell division process which halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells
Zygote
Formed when sperm and ovum unite so that the genes from one replace the genes from another
Crossing Over
chromosomes next to each other break at one or more points and exchange segments so that genes from one gamete are replaced by genes from another
Autosomes
22 matching pair of chromosomes
Sex Chromosomes
contained in the 23rd pair of chromosomes
Identical/Monozygotic Twins
Have the same Genetic make up
Fraternal/Dizygotic Twins
most common type of multiple birth; result from release and fertilization of two ova
Allele
two forms of each gene occur at the same place on chromosomes, one inherited from the mother and one from the father- each form is called an allele
Homozygous
Happens when the alleles are the same and will display the inherited trait
Heterozygous
Happens when the alleles differ and the relationship between them determines which trait will manifest
Dominant-Recessive Gene Inheritance
occurs when alleles differ; only one allele effects child's characteristics; the one that had no effect is recessive and the one that manifests is dominant
Carriers
Carry a recessive trait from one parent
modifier Genes
enhance or dilute the effects of other genes
Incomplete Dominance
pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, resulting in a combined trait or one that is intermediate between the two
X-linked Inheritance
harmful allele carried on X chromosome; males more susceptible to these
Genomic Imprinting
alleles are chemically marked so that one pair member is activated, regardless of its makeup
Mutation
a sudden but permanent change in a segment of DNA
Polygenic Inheritance
many genes determine the characteristic in question
Genetic Counseling
designed to help couples understand the genetic principles, genetic testing and prevention of genetic disorders; assess chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose best course of action
Prenatal Diagnostic Methods
medical procedures that permit detection of problems before birth
Behavioral genetics
Field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to this diversity in human traits and abilities
Heritability Estimates
measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
Kinship Studies
compare the characteristics of family members
Range of Reaction
each person's unique, genetically determined response to the environment
Canalization
tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
Genetic-environmental Correlation
our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed
Niche-picking
tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity
Epigenesis
development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment.
amnion
membrane that encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid; maintains temperature and provides a cushion for the baby
chorion
surrounds the amnion; from the walls of the chorion tiny hair-like villi, or blood-vessels emerge.
Placenta
Brings mother and baby's blood together; permits food and oxygen to reach the developing organism and carries out waste
Umbilical Cord
first appears in period of zygote; contains one large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that remove waste products (1-3 ft in length)
Embryo
Implantation-8 weeks; most rapid prenatal changes take place; groundwork is laid for body structures and internal organs
Fetus
9th week-birth; longest prenatal period
Vernix
white, cheese-like substance protects the child from chapping in the amniotic fluid (2nd trimester)
Languo
white, downy hair that covers the body; helps vernix stick to the skin (3rd trimester)
Age of Viability
occurs between 22 and 26 weeks; the point at which the baby can first survive
teratogen
any environmental agent that causes damage during prenatal period
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
term that encompasses a range of physical, mental and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
slow physical growth, 3 facial abnormalities (widely spaced eyes, thin upper lip, smooth/flattened philtrum), and brain injury or impairment
Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (p-FAS)
2/3 facial abnormalities, and brain injury
Alcohol-related Neuro-developmental Disorder (ARND)
At least 3 areas of mental functioning are impaired; no obvious physical manifestations
Apgar Scale
used to assess the baby's physical condition (0-2)
Natural, or prepared, childbirth
consists of a group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth as rewarding an experience as possible
Breech position
turned in such a way that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first
Rh factor incompatibility
Disagreement between the mother and baby's blood types; the mother forms antibodies for the baby's Rh positive blood; can enter into the fetus' blood stream, destroy red blood cells and reduce the amount of oxygen in the blood
Preterm Infants
born several weeks before their due date; they may be small but their weights may be appropriate due to size of the uterus
Small-for-date Infants
below their expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy
Infant Mortality
number of deaths in the first year of life per 1000 live births is an index used around the world to assess the overall health of the nation's children
Neonatal Mortality
rate or death within the first month of life
Reflex
inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
states of arousal
degrees of sleep and wakefulness
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep
electrical brain wave activity is remarkably similar to that of a waking state; eyes dart beneath the lids, blood pressure, heart rate and breathing uneven, slight body movements occur
Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) Sleep
body is almost motionless, breathing, heart rate and brain activity are slow and regular
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant younger than 2 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough examination
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
evaluates the baby's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli and other reactions
Classical Conditioning
possible in the young infant; a neural stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. Once the baby's nervous system makes a connection between the two stimuli, the new stimulus will produce the behavior by itself
Unconditioned Stimulus
Before learning takes place, this must consistently produce a reflexive, or unconditioned response (UCR)
Conditioned Stimulus
Learned by the child; creates a conditioned response; reflexive
Extinction
Occurs when the CS is presented alone without the UCS, the CR will no longer occur
Operant Conditioning
infants act or operate on the environment and the stimuli that follow that behavior changes the probability that the behavior will occur again
Reinforcer
stimulus that increases the occurrence of behavior
Punishment
removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one decreases the occurrence of a behavior
Habituation
refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation
Recovery
new stimulus--change in the environment--causes the habituated response to return to a high level
imitation
copying the behavior of another person
Mirror Neurons
specialized cells in the motor areas of the cerebral cortex; these neurons fire identically when an action is seen and when it is repeated by the subject