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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
gene
A stretch of DNA that encodes for a protein
humans have genes in ___ pairs of chromosomes
23
humans have ___ total chromosomes
46
alleles
2 versions of the same gene
conjugation
Contact between two bacteria accompanied by the transfer of a short stretch of DNA from one to the other
what consists of a maternal and a paternal component?
genes, chromosomes
single cells reproduce by...
...fission or mitosis
what's the advantage of a big gamete?
provides energy for division and growth
what's the advantage of a small gamete?
doesn’t have to give up as many proteins
male and female were produced through..
...disruptive selection
mitosis =
cell division
In mitosis, _____ chromosomes get duplicated, and _____ goes to each resulting cell
all 23 pairs of; a complete copy
in mitosis, you start with ___ chromosomes and end up with 2 resulting cells, each with ____ chromosomes
46, 46
in meiosis, you start with ___ chromosomes and end up with 2 resulting cells, each with ____ chromosomes
46, 23
in meiosis, _____ of chromosomes from each pair is duplicated passed on
only one
in mitosis, _____ of chromosomes from each pair is duplicated passed on
both
Recombination
Chromosome will break off, sister chromosome breaks off, swap pieces and join back together
Recombination creates...
zygotes with maternal and paternal genes on each chromosome
recombination happens in...
...meiosis
gametes are...
...haploid (half of the chromosome pair)
in mitosis, _____ of chromosomes from each pair is duplicated passed on
both
zygotes are...
...diploid (full pair of chromosomes)
Recombination
Chromosome will break off, sister chromosome breaks off, swap pieces and join back together
____ doubles the amount of resulting genes
asexual
Recombination creates...
zygotes with maternal and paternal genes on each chromosome
what small organisms can sexually reproduce?
bacteria
virgin birth
parthenogenesis
recombination happens in...
...meiosis
gametes are...
...haploid (half of the chromosome pair)
what 3 vertebrates use parthenogenesis?
lizards, turkeys, komodo dragons
zygotes are...
...diploid (full pair of chromosomes)
what insects use parthenogenesis?
aphids?
____ doubles the amount of resulting genes
asexual
Paternity testing keeps track of...
...which alleles came from which parent
what small organisms can sexually reproduce?
bacteria
3 benefits of sexual reproduction
remove harmful mutations, produce new mutations, fight parasites/disease
whiptail lizards are...
...all females
virgin birth
parthenogenesis
what 3 vertebrates use parthenogenesis?
lizards, turkeys, komodo dragons
hermaphrodites make...
...both kinds of gametes
what insects use parthenogenesis?
aphids
Paternity testing keeps track of...
...which alleles came from which parent
3 benefits of sexual reproduction
remove harmful mutations, produce new mutations, fight parasites/disease
whiptail lizards are...
...all females
hermaphrodites make...
...both kinds of gametes
which species use external fertilization?
aquatic ones
in external fertilization...
...sperm and egg tend to be similar sized
oviparity
female lays egg and development continues outside of body
2 mammals that use oviparity
spiny anteater, platypus
viviparity
fertilized egg remains inside female and develops there
birth in viviparity is called...
...parturition
where males congregate for mating
lek
When males and females are structurally different
sexual dimorphism
when might males be smaller than females?
When delivering sperm is dangerous or when males invest more in offspring
name a species where males care for offspring
jacanas
prairie voles are...
...monogamous
mountain voles are...
...polygamous
When times are good...
first choice in husband maximized possible offspring
When times are hard...
females that choose more than one mate maximize offspring
mate guarding
Male stays close to female (especially when in estrous) and discourage other males
infanticide
Males kill infants when they take control of pack to make females spread male genes
sperm plugs
Glands secrete sticky solution that fits around cervix after ejaculation, helps sperm get upstream
more sperm competition -->
bigger testes
who suggested natural selection should favor behavior that helps your relatives reproduce
Hamilton
3 species with kin selection
jays, bees, ants