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100 Cards in this Set

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Rape
sexual intercourse that can include psychological and physiological coercion
Physical Coercion
forced vaginal, anal, or oral penetration
Psychological Coercion
pressuring someone who has not consented to sexual activity or taking advantage of someone because of intellectual abilities, intoxication, or age
Sexual Assault
any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without the consent of the recipient or unwanted sexual activity, which includes unwanted penetration, forced oral sex, masturbation, touching, fondling, or kissing, as well as, forcing someone to view sexually explicit materials
Reasons victims do not report rape
shameful, guilty, embarrassed or humiliated and do not want people to know; worry that their reports will not be taken seriously, their confidentiality will not be maintained, or the attacker will retaliate; and may not feel comfortable reporting because they know their attacker
Demographics of majority of rapists
male, young, single, and between the ages of 15 and 30.
Characteristics of male rapists
have sexist views about women; accept myths about rape; have low self-esteem; are politically conservative; have been the victim of past sexual abuse; used violent and degrading pornography while holding negative views of women; had overwhelmingly negative early interpersonal experiences, largely with their fathers; and tend to be later born to older mothers and fathers.
Type of rapes
Power rapists are motivated by domination and control.
Anger rapists use anger in overt ways (macho image, force, weapon).
Sadistic rapists are motivated by sexual and aggressive fantasies.
Rapist Psychopathology: Disease Model
either disease or intoxication forces men to rape and that if they did not experience these conditions, they would not rape
Victim Precipitation Theory: Blaming the Victim
The theory focuses on the victim and ignores the motivations of the attacker, which shifts the responsibility from the person who knowingly attacked to the innocent victim.
Feminist Theory: Keeping Women in Their Place
rape and the threat of rape are used in society to keep women in their place
Sociological Theory: Balance of Power
expression of power differentials in society
Evolutionary Theory: Product of Evolution
men and women have developed differing reproductive strategies in which men desire frequent mating to spread their seed, and women are designed to protect their eggs and be more selective in choosing mates
Primary cultural factors that affect incidence of rape
relations between the sexes, the status of women, and male attitudes.
Rape Trauma Syndrome
two-stage stress response pattern characterized by physical, psychological, behavioral, or a combination of these, and it occurs after forced, non-consenting, sexual activity.
Acute phase of RTS
begins immediately following the assault, may last from days to weeks, and involves several stress-related symptoms (shock, fear, anger)
Long-term reorganization phase of RTS
restoring order in the victim’s lifestyle and reestablishing control.
Silent rape reaction
type of trauma syndrome in which a rape victim never talks to anyone after the rape
Avoidance strategies
Humanization, verbal strategies, escape, self-defense classes
First thing for men to do in treatment
accept responsibility for their actions.
Sexual abuse of children
sexual behavior that occurs between an adult and a child
Sexual abuse of children behavior
inappropriate touch, removing a child’s clothing, genital fondling, masturbation, digital penetration with fingers or sex toys, oral sex, vaginal or anal intercourse
Incest
sexual contact between persons who are related to, or have a caregiving relationship with, a child or adolescent
Reported rates are child sexual abuse are lower for males than females
1) boys believe they must be self-reliant and may feel they should be able to handle it; 2) male sexual abuse is entwined with the stigma of homosexuality, because most offenders are male and; 3) boys have much to lose because they often have more freedom in society than girls.
Dissociative disorder
psychological condition that involves a disturbance of memory, identity, and consciousness,
Traumatic sexualization
child displays compulsive sex play or masturbation and shows an inappropriate amount of sexual knowledge
Child molester characteristics
poor social skills, lower IQs, unhappy family histories, lower self-esteem, and less happiness in their lives than nonmolesters.
most effective treatment for victims of child sexual abuse
combination of cognitive and behavioral psychotherapies, which teach victims how to understand and handle the trauma of their assaults more effectively.
Intimate partner violence
coercive behavior that uses threats, harassment, or intimidation, and can involve physical, emotional, or sexual abuse.
Sexual harassment
unwanted sexual attention from someone in school or the workplace
Types of sexual harassment
unwelcome sexual jokes, glances, or comments, or the use of status or power to coerce or attempt to coerce a person into having sex
Quid pro quo harassment
submission to a particular type of conduct, either explicitly or implicitly, to get education or employment.
Hostile environment harassment
individual is subjected to unwelcome repeated sexual comments, innuendoes, or visually offensive material or touching that creates a hostile environment and interferes with school or work
Paraphilia
sexual behaviors that involve a craving for an erotic object that is unusual or different
Features of paraphilias
-recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies,
-sexual urges or behaviors,
-generally involves nonhuman objects or,
-the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner,
a child, or a non-consenting person.
Biological theory of paraphilia
temporal lobe epilepsy, brain tumors, and disturbances of the brain
Psychoanalytical theory of paraphilia
traced back to the difficulty the infant has to negotiate the Oedipal crisis and castration anxiety
Developmental theory of paraphilia
due to auditory, tactile, and especially visual stimuli experienced during childhood sex play that form a template in the brain that defines our ideal love and ideal sexual situation.
Fetishism
Primary or exclusive focus of sexual arousal and orgasm on an inanimate object or body part not usually associated with the sex act.
Sadism
intentional infliction of physical or psychological pain (e.g., humiliation) on another person as the preferred or exclusive method to achieve sexual arousal or orgasm
Sadistic fantasies include...
restraint, beating, burning, spanking, whipping, among others
Masochism
sexual pleasure preferably or exclusively through one’s own physical pain or psychological humiliation as the method of sexual arousal and orgasm
Sadomasochism (S&M)
sexual activities of partners in which one takes a dominant, “master,” position, and the other takes a submissive, “slave,” position
Exhibitionism
exposing one’s genitals, nudity, or sexuality to strangers as a preferred or exclusive means of sexual arousal and orgasm
Scatolophilia
form of exhibitionism in which sexual arousal is obtained from obscene telephone calls
Voyeurism
main means of sexual gratification involve watching unsuspecting persons undressing, naked, or engaging in sexual activity
pedophilia
sex with children as a preferred or exclusive mode of sexual interaction in an adult (child molestation, child sexual abuse).
ephebephilia
Attraction to postpubertal boys and girls
Most common in pedophilia
fondling and exhibitionismhan penetration.
Frotteurism
intense and recurrent fantasy or behavior that involves touching and rubbing the genitals against a nonconsenting person in a crowded place
toucherism
compulsively touching with the hands
zoophilia
sexual attraction to animals in fantasy or through sexual contact
Necrophilia
sexual attraction to dead bodies in fantasy or through sexual contact as a preferred or exclusive means of sexual arousal or orgasm
Assessment of paraphilia
Behavioral observation
Personality inventory
Physiological test
Penile plethysmography
Treatment of paraphilia
include individual, group, family therapy; medication; education; and self-help groups
Most important goal of paraphilia therapy
Change person's behavior
Sexual addiction
compulsive sexual behavior, characterized by recurrent and intense sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors that typically interfere with daily functioning
Psychological problems in dysfunction
Performance fears, or not being able to perform during sexual behavior; excessive need to please a partner; and spectatoring, acting as an observer or judge of one’s own sexual performance, interfere with sexual functioning
Physical problems in dysfunction
Disease, disability, illness and commonly used drugs, as well as, use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, LSD, and cocaine can lead to sexual dysfunction
Primary sexual dysfunction
one that always existed
Secondary sexual dysfunction
one that occurs after a period of adequate or normal sexual functioning
Situational sexual dysfunction
difficulty that occurs only in specific situations
Global sexual dysfunction
occurs in every sexual situation, during every type of sexual activity, and with every sexual partner
Hypoactive sexual desire
sexual dysfunction in which a person experiences diminished or absent sexual interest or desire
Primary hypoactive sexual desire
lifelong complete disinterest in sex
Secondary hypoactive sexual desire
that was normal for a certain period of time but then diminished
Hypoactive sexual desire - psychological factors
lack of attraction to one’s partner, fear of intimacy or pregnancy, marital or relationship conflicts, religious concerns, depression, and other psychological disorders
Hypoactive sexual desire - biological causes
hormonal problems, medication side effects, and illness
Treatment for hypoactive sexual desire
Sex and marital therapy
Cognitive-Behavioral therapy
Pharmacological drugs
Sexual Aversion
persistent or recurrent extreme aversion to and avoidance of all genital contact
Primary sexual aversion
negative response to sexual interactions from earliest memory to the present
Secondary sexual aversion
involves a period of pleasurable and desirable sexual activity before the aversion started
Treatment for Sexual Aversion
discovering and resolving the underlying conflict that contributes to the sexual aversion
& Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD)
persistent or recurrent inability to either obtain or maintain an adequate lubrication response of sexual excitement
Physiological factor of Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
decreased blood flow to the vulva
Psychological factors of Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
fear, guilt, anxiety, and depression.
Persistent Sexual Arousal Disorder
women experience persistent sexual arousal
Male Erectile Disorder
persistent diminished or absent ability to attain or maintain an erection until completion of the sexual activity
Physiological factors of male erectile Disorder
persistent diminished or absent ability to attain or maintain an erection until completion of the sexual activity
Psychological factors of male erectile disorder
fear of failure and performance anxiety
Female Orgasmic Disorder
a delay or absence of orgasm following a normal phase of sexual excitement
Primary orgasmic disorder
never having had an orgasm
Secondary orgasmic disorder
the ability to have an orgasm previously but later having trouble
situational orgasmic disorder
the ability to only have orgasms with only one type of stimulation.
Physical factors of sexual orgasm disorders
severe chronic illness and disorders such as diabetes, neurological problems, hormonal deficiencies, and alcoholism
Psychological factors of sexual orgasm disorder
less relationship satisfaction, less emotional closeness, and difficulty to ask the partner for direct clitoral stimulation
Treatment for sexual orgasmic disorder
teach woman to masturbate
System desensitization
Bibliotherapy
Systematic Desensitization
neutralizing the anxiety-producing aspects of sexual situations and behavior by a process of gradual exposure
Bibliotherapy
use of books and educational materials
Premature ejaculation
reaching an orgasm just prior to, or directly following, penetration
Treatment for premature ejaculation
behavioral cognitive therapy, drug treatments, and two behavioral techniques- the squeeze technique, and the stop-start techniques.
Retarded ejaculation
ejaculation is impossible or occurs only after strenuous efforts (30-45 minutes)
Retrograde ejaculation
the backward flow of ejaculate into the bladder instead of released through the urethra
Psychological factors of ejaculatory dysfunction
trict upbringing, unique or atypical masturbation patterns, fear of pregnancy, or ambivalence over sexual orientation
Physical factors of ejaculatory dysfunction
medications, drug use, diseases, injuries, and various urological surgeries
Vaginismus
to involuntary spasms of the muscle around the entrance to the vagina that controls the vaginal opening that makes penetration during sexual intercourse virtually impossible
Dyspareunia
painful intercourse, may before, during, or after sexual intercourse and when extreme may make sexual intercourse difficult, if not impossible
Physical factors for vulvar vestibulus
allergies
infections
Psychological factors for vulvar vestibulus
performance anxiety
fear of intimacy
Treatment for vulvodynia
psychotherapy
biofeedback
surgery
Counseling