Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/21

Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Risk Factors For Developing Bloodstream Infection
Hospitalization
Iatrogenic (IV, catheters, invasive procedures)
Complication of localized infections
Bacteremial pneumococcal penumonia
Risk Factors for Bloodstream Infection
Burns
Neutropenia
Poor nutrition
Multiple comorbid conditions
Extremes of age
Peripheral IV
Central venous catheter
Arterial catheter
Sepsis Pathogenesis
Bactermia/infection --> systemic inflammatory response --> a. widespread tissue injury and multiorgan failure b. coagulation derangement (DIC)
Clinical Manifestations of Sepsis
Fever
Tachypnea
Diaphoresis
Hypotension
Altered mental status
Cold extremities
Cyanosis
Gangrene
Oliguria
Sepsis Labs
Leukopenia/leukocytosis
Thrombocytopenia
Hypo/hyperglycemia
Abnormal liver and renal function
Abnormal coagulation
Hypoxemia
Lactic acidosis
Sepsis Respiratory Complications
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
-leaky capillaries
-interstitial and alveolar eema
-Hypoxemia
-Poor oxygen delivery to tissues
Sepsis Hematologic Complications
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
-consumptive coagulopathy
-microgangiopathic hemolytic anemia, schistocytes
-widespread activation of clotting cascade --> ischemia/infarction
Sepsis Renal Complications
Acute kidney failure
-acute tubular necrosis
-oliguria/anuria
Post-splenectomy sepsis
Streptococcus pneumonia
Neisseria meningitidis
H. influenzae
Fulminant sepsis due to encapsulated bacteria
Hemoglobin Biochemistry
Globin + 4 heme radicals
Heme complexes with iron atom in center of porphyrin structure
Hemoglobin Biosynthesis
Heme is made from acetic acid and glycine in the mitochondria. 4 pyrrole --> protoporphyrin
Protoporphyrin III + Fe --> heme
4 heme + globin --> hemoglobin
Rate limiting step: delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase
Anemia Criteria
Decrease in hemoglobin per unti volume of blodd below level previously established as normal
Anemia Symptoms
Fatigue, dyspnea, chest pain, palpitation, claudications, headache, dizziness, jaundice, pica, pagophagia, dysphagia, Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Anemia History
Bleeding, anemia, jaundice
Sulfa drugs, phenytoin, alcohol
Sickle Cell, Thalassemia
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Impaired hemoglobinization
Hypochromic (decreased hemoglobin concentration)
Microcytic
Vitamin B12 Anemia
Pernicious anemia (lack of intrinsic factor)
-Gastrectomy, irritable bowel disease, bowel resection, absorption problems
-neurologic problems
-impaired DNA synthesis
Folic Acid Anemia
Megaloblastic anemia
Like B12 without neurological problems
Impaired DNA synthesis
RBC Production
Hemocytoblast --> basophil erythroblast --> polychromatphil eryhtroblast --> normoblast --> RBC
Megaloblastic Anemia Pathology
Impaired DNA synthesis
Decreased mitotic activity due to lengthening of intermitotic interval
Crowded BM
Megaloblastic pattern
Cells grow large
Nuclear-cytoplasmic asynchronism
Large, oval, red cells
Ovalocytic
Leukopenia
Thrombocytopenia
Iron Toxicity
GI irritation, necrosis, nausea, vomiting, shock
Pallor, cyanosis, lassitude, drowsiness, hematemesis, diarrhea (green/tarry)
CV collapse
Hydroxyurea
Increases amount of Hg F which doesn't contain faulty sickle cell protein
Intermittent blockade of early normoblast maturation