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71 Cards in this Set

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What is a seizure
time limited abnormal, involuntary, unpredictable, rhythmic neuronal discharge in the brain
Are seizures a disease
NO they are a symptom of a disease
What disease is marked by spontaneous recurrence of two or more unprovoked seizures
Epilepsy
What predisposes a person to developing epilepsy
any alteration in structure or function of cerebral neurons presisposes a person to epilepsy
What is a provoked seizure
seizure brought on by a change in physiologic state IE hypo/hyper glycemia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, stroke, drug intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, infections, tumors, uremia, head trauma
What are some causes of Provoked seizures
hypo/hyper glycemia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, stroke, drug intoxication/ withdrawal, alcohol withdrawal, infection (meningitis/encephalitis), tumors, uremia, head trauma
What are two medications that are prescribed that can lower seizure threshold
Theophylline and tricyclic antidepressants
What is a common cause of seizures in children
high fever
What are some common structural problems/disease of the brain that predispose a patient to having seizures
Congenital defects, heterotopias, cortical dysplasia, degenerative diseases, alzheimer disease, infectious meningitis, enchephalitis, abscess, tumor, trauma, vascular malformation, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage
What is the tx difference between provoked vs unprovoked seizures
provoked seizures are tx by addressing underlying factor that triggered the seizure. Unprovoked seizures are treated with antiepileptic meds
When do you have the highest incidence of new cases of epilepsy
highest incidence of new cases is in elderly
Who is more likely to suffer from epilepsy males or females
M>F 1.2:1 so not that much higher
What is the most common cause of seizures worldwide
parasites
How are epileptic seizures divided
split into partial and generalized seizures classes and depends on symptoms observed during seizure
How are generalized seizures characterized
complete LOC, nonfocal in origin, EEG shows entire cortex involved; tonic clonic seiuzre, absence seizures, myoclonic seizures, atonic, atypical absence, infantile spasm
What is a tonic seizure
prolonged contraction of the body with the head and eyes deviating
What is a clonic seizure
repetitive jerks without the tonic element
What is an atonic seizure
sudden loss of postural tone that may not be associated with LOC
What syndrome is marked by spasms and developmental delay in infants age 4-8months and has interictal EEG pattern (hypsarrhythmia) and mental retardation
West Syndrome/ Infantile Spasms
What infantile spasms disorder is cuased by inherited ion channel disorder of potassium channels that lead to generalized seizures
Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions
What childhood epilepsy generally begings ages 8-20 and accounts for 7% of all epilepsies and is characterized by jerky movements and some absence seizures
Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy
What type of seizure is marked by a conscious not impaired person who has a symptom reflected by the small area of the brain that is affected (ie motor, sensory or psychic symptom)
Simple Partial Seizure
Pt has only one neurologic modality affected during their seizure and have impaired consciousness what type of seizure are they likley having
Complex Partial Seizure
What is an absence seizure
seizure marked by staring, unresponsive, twitching muscles, blinking, automatisms that lasts 1-10 seconds.
What is an automatism associated with abscnece seizure
Repetitive purposeless movements (lip smacking, fiddling with clothes/buttons or repeating short phrases) they have abrupt onset and termination
What is an atypical absence seizure
absence seizure with gradual onset and termination that lasts longer and has more motor involvement
What is a primary generalized seizure
seizure that involves how brain has a tonic phase, clonic phase, biting and incontinence last 2-3 minutes followed by unresponsiveness/ confusion
Can partial seizures develop into generalized seizrures
yes
If a pt has a seizure and has a LOC what type of seizure are they most likely suffering from
Generalized seizure
Pt has a seizure but has not had a LOC but they have an altered state of consciousness what type of seizure are the likely having
Complex Partial Seizure
Pt has a seizure they have not a had LOC or decreased or altrered state of consciousness what type of seizure are they likely having
Simple Partial Seizure
What are the common toxins that cause seizures
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What is status epilepticus
repeated seizures without recovery lasting at least 30 min
What is the most common cause of status epilepticus
noncompliance with anti epileptic drugs
Apart from non compliance with antiepileptic drugs what are some common causes of status epilepticus
ETOH abuse, withdrawal, neoplasms, and drug overdose
Should you be concerned with a persone going into status epilepticus or not because it will just run its course and they will be fine once it is finished
status epilepticus is a medical emergency with a mortality rate of 3% in children 26% in adults and 38% in elderly
Pt is in status epilepticus what drugs are you likley going to give them to help bring them out of their seizures
Lorazepam, Diazepam, fosphenytoin, phenytoin or phenobarbital or midazolam (versed)
PT has come into the ED after suffering a seizure what do you want to look at during your PE
look for injury especially head/c spine, fractures, bruising, sprains especially posterior shoulder dislocations and tongue biting. Get a glucose determination and get vital signs looking close at temp
What may be noted on a neuro exam of a seizure pt postictally
positive babinski, todd's paralysis (extremity weakness) and pupils may be dilated
This epileptic syndrome is marked by seizures that often start as a child wakes up in the morning with tingling on one side of mouth, difficulty speaking, drooling. These focal seizure can develop into secondary generalized seizures
Benign Rolandic Epilepsy
This epileptic syndrome is generally lifelong epileptic encephalopathy that starts at age 3-5 years and is very similar to the west syndrome/infantile spasm seizures
Lennox- Gastaut Syndrome
if a pt complains of a seizure lasting 10-30minutes without LOC despite whole body jerking and especially pelvic thrusting movements what are they likely having
pseudoseizure
What are some sleep disorders that may be mistaken for seizure
night terrors, periodic limb movements, enuresis, Narcolepsy, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnologic hallucinations
Why would you order a lumbar puncture in a seizure pt
if suspected CNS infection or subarachnoid hemorrhage you want to check this out and make sure this isn't causing seizures
What is the gold standard dx test for seizure disorders
MRI
Name 3 drugs that are typically prescribed for seizure disorders
Carbamazepine (Tegretol), Clonazepam (Klonopin), Ethosuximide (Zarontin), Phenobarbital (luminal), Phenytoin (Dilantin), Primidone (Mysoline), Valproic Acid (Depakote)
What is the tx of choice for infantile spasms
ACTH (adrenal corticotropin hormone)
What is the tx of choice for absence seizures
ethosuximide, or valproate
What is the tx of choice for Atypical Absence/ Atonic seizures
Valproate
What is the tx of choice fore Myoclonic seizures
valproate
What is the drug of choice for GTC/Tonic/Clonic seizures
carbamazepine, Phenytoin or valproate
What is the drug of choice for tx of partial onset (all types including secondarily generalized seizures)
All conventional anti epileptic drugs except ethosuximide
You place your pt on carbamazepine for seizures what s/e may the have
transient leukopenia, hyponatremia from SIADH, rare aplastic anemia and hepatitis
What s/e may a pt have on ethosuximide
Nausea, anorexia, HA, blood dyscrasias
what s/e may a pt have on felbamate
insomnia, weight loss, agitation, aplastic anemia, hepatitis must be monitored by surveillance lab testing
What s/e may a pt have on lamotrigine
rash and HA
what s/e may a pt have on oxcarbazepine
hyponatremia
What s/e may a pt have on phenobarbital
sedation, possible learning difficulties, depression, paradoxical hyperactivity in children
What s/e may a pt have on Phenytoin
gum hyperplasia, hirsutism, cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, folate deficiency, hypersensitivity hepatitis
What s/e may a pt have on primidone
macrocytic anemia but less sedating than phenobarbital
what s/e may a pt have on topiramate
cognitive impairment and kidney stones (1%)
What are some common s/e of valproic acid
tremor, weight gain, alopecia, thrombocytopenia, benign elevation of LFTs, rare fatal hepatitis and pancreatitis, risk for neural tube defects
What s/e are common with zonisamide
impaired sweating in children, rare rash and blood dyscrasias and kidney stones
What are some common health maintenance concerns with antiepileptic patients
30-50% have osteopenia, 2% have osteoporosis, depression is common, counseling about reproductive issues, consider dc meds after 3yrs seizure free
What is lesionectomy in regards to seizures
removing the focal area and some surrounding brain tissue from where someone's seizure arises. This is generally only successful in pts with focal seizures less localized seizures don't benefit as much from this surgery
When would you perform a temporal resection
can be performed in pts with temporal lobe epilepsy and is excellent in controlling seizures in 75-80% of pts but some pts may have post operative speech and memory problems
when would you perform a hemispherectomy
only in pts with extensive brain disease or disorder since birth or from a very young age that has uncontrollable seizures
When would you perform a corpus callosotomy
used in pts with lennox-gastaut syndrome and is only performed on children you are frequently injured during falls from seizures. Generally only remove 2/3 of corpus callosum if no lasting improvement other 1/3 can be removed
Pt has intractable partial seizures and is over the age of 12 what procedure can be performed that will allow them to possible short circuit a seizure before it starts
vagus nerve stimulator- insertion of a pacemaker like device that stimulates the vagus nerve 30sec every 5min and that can be manually activated when a prodrom is experienced to prevent or stop a seizure in progress
What type of diet may help children with epilepsy that hasn't responded to other tx
ketogenic diet- high fat low protein, low carb diet forces pt into starvation dehydration and creates excessive supply of ketones with seizure suppressing properties
What is a concern with a women with epilepsy getting pregnant
increased incidence of birth defects 1-2% higher than gen pop.