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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
in the proximal tubule how is Na reabsorbed
countertransport with H+ (Na+/H+ exchange)
what is the mechanism for Na reabsorption in the thick ascending limb
Na, K, 2Cl cotransport
where is Na and Cl cotransported
early distal convoluted tubule
where is the only place that Na is brought in by itself
late distal convoluted tubules
does water reabsorption require energy
always passive
does water reabsorption occur transcellularly or paracellularly
both!
what is chloride reabsorption always linked to either directly or indirectly
Na
what portion of the loop of henle is permeable to water
descending
what is the descending limb of henle impermeable to
na and cl
what is the ascending limb of the henle impermeable to
water
what occurs at the thick segment of the ascending loop of henle
active na, k, 2cl cotransport
what occurs at thin segment of the ascending loop of henle
passive nacl reabsorption
what is the site of physiological control of salt and water
collecting duct
what does aldosterone do in collecting duct
stimulates na reabsorption k secretion and h secretion
what does atrial naturiuretic peptide do in the collecting duct
inhibits na reabsorption
what does the antidiuretic hormone do in the collecting duct
stimulate water reabsorption
how does aldosterone increase the na reabsorption in the collecting duct
increases na channels in the luminal membrane and na k atpase in basolateral membrane
do you see effects of aldosterone immediately and why or why not
no, it is a steroid. it works via making the proteins needed for na channels
in dehydrated individuals what occurs at the collecting duct
it is highly water permeable and water is reabsorbed and low volume urine is excreted
how does ADH increase water permeability in the late distal tubule, collecting duct
via cAMP it increases the amounts of aquaporins on the luminal side
what portion of the kidney has a greater solute concentration
the inner medulla
what is the countercurrent multiplier mechanism
concentrates solute in the medullary interstitium; enables kidneys to conserve water during periods of dehydration
what are the 3 components of the countercurrent multiplier
vasa recta, loop of henle and collecting duct
what is action of the vasa recta in the countercurrent multiplier
exchanger
what is action of the loop of henle in the countercurrent multiplier
multiplier
what is action of the collecting duct in the countercurrent multiplier
osmotic equilibrator
where is urea concentrated in the nephron by 50%
pct
what promotes the urea absorption from the inner medullary collecting duct
adh
what makes the collects duct epithelium highly permeable to water
adh
where is the highest osmolarity of the blood?
vasa recta
what is the minimum urine excretion to eliminate wastes per day
500 mL
if urine osmolarity is less than plasma osmolarity then clearance of water is positive or negative
positive
when clearance of water is positive then water is retained or cleared
cleared
what was the clearance equation
u*v/p
what does the vasa recta maintain
the solute gradient
angiotensin 2 stimulates the efferent or afferent constriction
efferent
what happens to adh in response to a2
secretion from posterior pit
what happens to aldo in response to a2
secretion from adrenal cortex
where does a2 cause na reabsorption
proximal tubule
what is aldosterone's action in the collecting duct
sodium reabsorption
k secretion
h secretion
what 3 factors control aldo secretion
increased k conc
increased acth conc
increased angiotensin II conc
what does anp do to gfr
increase
how does anp act : afferent and efferent
dilates afferent
constricts efferent
what does anp do to na
inhibits reabsorption
what does anp do to renin
suppresses it
what does anp do to aldo secretion
suppresses it
what does anp do systemically
vasodilate
what does anp do to adh secretion
suppress it
where does anp come from
cardiac atria
where is urodilatin secreted
in the dct and collecting duct
what does urodilatin do systemically
no effect
what does intrarenal prostaglandins do to na
they suppress reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of cortical collecting duct and therefore increase na excretion
what does intrarenal prostaglandins to gfr
dilate renal arterioles
increase gfr
what controls the adh secretion
aortic baroreceptors -> supraoptic nucleus
hepatic osmoreceptors -> hypothalamic osmoreceptors
what happens to adh in response to plasma osmolality
increases linear relationship
what happens to adh in response to blood volume depletion
small changes do not change adh but large changes in volume cause a dramatic adh
if a person has a 15% decrease in blood volume/pressure and has low plasma osmolality, what is the response of adh
it is steeper than normal it responds faster
if a person has a 15% increase in blood volume/pressure and has high plasma osmolality, what is the response of adh
there is a volume expansion, it responds much slower than normal
what is the renal response to increase nacl intake
decreased renin and therefore increased nacl excretion
hemorrhage leading to decreased arterial blood pressure, what is the renal response
decreased baroreceptor firing, and increased adh secretion, leading to h2o reabsorption from collecting duct and thus the maintenance of bp