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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cellular respiration
involves various metabolic pathways that break down carbs, consumes oxygen and produces CO2
as a metabolite is oxidized, accepts two electrons and and a hydrogen ion
breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm into two molecules of pyruvate
preparatory reaction
pyruvate enters a mitochondrian and is oxidized to a two carbon acetyl group and CO2 is removed
citric acid cycle
occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrian and produces NADH and FADH2, series of reactions that gives off CO2 and produces one ATP
electron transport train
series of carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane that accepts electrons from glucose
pivotal metabolite in cellular respiration
anaerobic process, occurs in the cytoplasm, glucose is completely metabolized to lactate
substrate-level phosphorylation
oxidation of G3P and subsequent substrates results in four high-energy phosphate groups, used to synthesize four ATP molecules
double membrane with an intermembrane space
oxidative phosphorylation
at each sequential redox reaction, energy is released to form ATP molecules, O2 must be present for the proteins to work
ATP Synthase complexes
channel proteins that serve as enzymes for ATP sythesis
term used for ATP production tied to an electrochemical (H+) gradient across a membrane
alcoholic fermentation
carried out by yeasts, produces carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
lactic acid fermentation
carried out by certain bacteria and fungi, produces lactic acid, process is used commercially for cheese, yogurt
oxygen debt
oxygen is needed to restore ATP levels and rid the body of lactate
degradative reactions break down molecules, tend to be exergonic
synthetic reactions build molecules, tend to be endergonic, ATP produced during catabolism drives this
carbon skeleton is produced in the liver by the removal of an amino group
Metabolic pool
molecules used for biosynthesis,
transfer of an amino acid group to an organic acid
essential amino acids
humans synthesize 11 out of 20 amino acids, the rest of these needed provided by the diet