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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Public Health?
The science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community, as by preventative medicine, health education, control of communicable diseases, application of sanitary measures, and monitoring of environmental hazards.
Pre-Christian period
Disposal of the dead
Most tribes used quarantine
Minoans (300 -1500 B.C.) & Cretans (3000 - 1000 B.C.) had drainage systems and water flushing systems
Roman Empire
public sanitary services, underground combined sewerage systems
excellent aqueducts still in use
Great Public Health Achievements-United States 1900-1999
Public health policies have added 25 years to the life expectancy of people in the United States.
Motor vehicle safety
Workplace safety
Control of infectious disease
Decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke
Safer and healthier foods
Healthier mothers and babies
Family Planning
Fluoridation of drinking water
Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard
( Dr. Lister/
surgery disinfectant
British Navy and scurvy
Dr. Semmelweis
Study of factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of disease. The study of disease at the level of population
Preventable Causes of Disease

BEINGS” model
Biologic and behavioral factors
Services, Social and spiritual factors
Agents of disease and illness
Bacteria, viruses, allergens, high fat diet etc.
Lead, silicosis, asbestos
Radiation, heat, noise, cold
Sanitation, social, political, and economic factors
Social and psychologic stressors
Herd Immunity
when a vaccine not only prevents the vaccinated person from contracting the disease but also prevents them from spreading disease
So if there is no herd immunity against disease and everyone is susceptible, the number of cases will ________each disease generation.
If there is 50% herd immunity, the number of cases ________each disease generation.
remain the same
If there is greater than 50% immunity than the disease ______.
should eventually die out
Negative consequence of Immunization
Loss of “natural booster” phenomenon
(effect may be lost when immunization prevents exposure and occurrence of the disease in the future should immunity wane occur)
Iceberg Phenomenon
The iceberg phenomenon denotes that the most severe cases of a disease, though less numerous, are the most visible and receive the most attention; yet the milder more abundant illnesses may go undetected. “Hidden beneath the surface”
Negative Effects
Change one element in the system, change will occur in other parts
e.g, Oral Polio Vaccine (Sabin) in the U.S
frequency (number) of new occurrences of a disease, injury, or death in the study population during the time period being examined!
the number of persons in a defined population who have a specified disease or condition at a point in time (time of survey).
proportion of persons who are unaffected at the beginning of a study period who undergo the risk event (death, disease, or injury) during the study period
Clearly defined group of persons who are studied over a period of time, persons at risk for the event.
Incidence rate
The number of incident cases over a defined study period, divided by the population at risk at the midpoint of that study period
Prevalence rate
actually the proportion of persons with a defined disease or condition at the time they are studied.
Commonly Used rates
Infant mortality rate (IMR): Often used as an overall index of the health status of a nation.
Number of deaths to infants under 1 year of age/ Number of live births X 1000
Preventative Medicine
Preventative medicine seeks to enhance the lives of individuals by helping them protect and improve their own health
state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (preamble to the constitution of WHO)
Primary prevention
Health promotion and specific prevention
Secondary prevention
Screening tests, periodic health examinations
Tertiary prevention
Disability limitation and rehabilitation
the ability of a measurement to be correct on the average
ability of a measurement to give the same result or a very similar result with repeated measurements of the same thing. ( precision or reliability)
Type I or alpha error-false positive error
Something said to be true and is false
Example: VDRL and pregnancy
Type II or beta error-false negative error
Something said to be false and it is true
Example: HIV testing
Ability of a test to identify disease when it is present in a diseased individual. If a test is NOT sensitive it will fail to detect disease in some diseased patients, this is the false negative error rate. Often as a test’s sensitivity rises it’s specificity decreases!
Ability of a test to identify the absence of disease in nondiseased individuals. If a test is NOT specific it will falsely indicate the presence of disease in non-diseased individuals. This is called the false positive error rate. The more specific a test, the more readily it will yield negative results.
Predictive Values
help answer the questions, if a test is positive what is the probability that he or she actually has the disease. If a result is negative what is the probability that the patient does not have the disease.
Positive predictive value
Negative predictive value
positive predictive value
false positive error rate
false negative error rate
negative predictive value