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21 Cards in this Set

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Serum Sodium (Normal)
135 to 145 mEq/L
Serum Sodium (Low)
<135 mEq/L (Hyponatremia)
Syndrome of inappropriate antiduretic hormone secretion.
Serum Sodium (High)
>145 mEq/L (Hypernatremia)
Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, fluid loss.
Serum Potassium (Normal)
3.5 to 5 mEq/L
Serum Potassium (Low)
<3.5 mEq/L (Hypokalemia)
Diarrhea, vomiting, diuretic therapy, excessive sweating.
Serum Potassium (High)
>5 mEq/L (Hyperkalemia)
Burns and renal failure.
Total Serum Calcium (Normal)
8.9 to 10.1 mg/dL
Total Serum Calcium (Low)
<8.9 mg/dL (Hypocalcemia)
Acute pancreatitis.
Total Serum Calcium (High)
>10.1 mg/dL (Hypercalcemia)
Hyperparathyroidism.
Ionized Calcium (Normal)
4.4 to 5.3 mg/dL
Ionized Calcium (Low)
<4.4 mg/dL (Hypocalcemia)
Massive transfusion.
Ionized Calcium (High)
>5.3 mg/dL (Hypercalcemia)
Acidosis.
Serum Phosphates (Normal)
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL or 1.8 to 2.6 mEq/L
Serum Phosphates (Low)
<2.5 mg/dL or <1.8mEq/L
(Hypophosphatemia)
Diabetic ketoacidosis.
Serum Phosphates (High)
>4.5 mg/dL or 2.6 mg/dL
(Hyperphosphatemia)
Renal insufficiency.
Serum Magnesium (Normal)
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
Serum Magnesium (Low)
<1.5 mEq/L (Hypomagnesemia)
Malneutrition.
Serum Magnesium (High)
>2.5 mEq/L (Hypomagnesemia)
Renal Failure.
Serum Chloride (Normal)
98 to 108 mEq/L
Serum Chloride (Low)
<98 mEq/L (Hypochloremia)
Prolonged vomiting.
Serum Chloride (High)
>108 mEq/L (Hyperchloremia)
Hypernatremia.