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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
A group of words is known as?
A phrase.
A phrase with a subject and a verb is?
A clause.
A unit of expression which contains one or more clauses is known as?
A sentence.
A sentence is divided into two parts?
Subject and Predicate.
The predicate is everything in the sentence other than?
The subject.
The four categories of sentences classified according to structure are?
Simple, Complex, Compound, Compound-Complex.
Sentences that contain only one clause with a subject and a predicate are?
Simple sentences (Peter likes sports)
A sentence containing a main clause and at least one subordinate clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun is considered?
A complex sentence. (We will go out + if the weather is good.)
A compound sentence, such as “Mom works in a bank and dad in a store” has?
Two independent clauses coordinated with each other.
A sentence that has two independent clauses and one or two subordinating clauses is called?
A compound-complex sentence. [When I was younger (sc), I used to work very hard (mc), so I saved enough money (ic) and I bought a new car.(ic)]
Sentences can also be classified according to purpose or function, such as?
Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative, Imperative and Exclamative.
What types of questions are introduced by an auxiliary, such as Do you like coffee?
A Yes/No question.
A question such as “Do you like tea or coffee?” are?
Alternative questions.
WH-questions are examples of?
Interrogative pronouns or adverbs.
When an affirmative or negative sentence has an interrogative part at the end it called?
A Tag question
Imperative sentences are introduced by?
A verb in basic form or the auxiliary ‘don’t’
“How beautiful she is!’ or “What a day!” are examples of?
Exclamative sentences.
Two clauses joined by the coordinating conjunctions AND, OR, BUT, NOR or YET are known as?
Coordinate clauses.
Why are coordinate clauses main clauses?
They can stand alone to complete a sentence.
Clauses which describe the main clause or depend on it and cannot stand alone are?
Subordinate clauses.
Relative pronouns or adverbs (that, which, who, whom, what, where, when, why, how) or a subordinating conjunction (because, as, since, after, before, although, providing, if, so, supposing, unless, until ,while ,in case, as soon as etc.) are used?
To introduce subordinate clauses.
Subordinate clauses can be divided into what 3 main groups according to the different functions they fill?
sentence: Adverbial, Adjective or Noun clauses.
When they modify or describe a verb or tell us about the action of a verb, subordinate clauses are called?
Adverbial clauses (When I arrived, he was playing in his room.)
“When I arrived,…” is a?
Subordinating adverbial clause of time .
“Although it was raining,…” is a?
Subordinating adverbial clause expressing contrast.
The following subordinating conjunctions: after, as , as soon as, before , since, once, till, until, when, whenever, while, by the time are used?
To introduce adverbial clauses of time.
Is ‘future” used in a adverbial clause of time?
Adverbial clauses of place are introduced by what subordinating conjunctions?
Where, wherever. (I like it where the weather is warm.)
Adverbial clauses of manner are introduced by what subordinating conjunctions?
As, as if, as though, like. (She behaves as though she were the manager.):
Adverbial clauses of comparison are introduced by what subordinating conjunctions?
As…as, than (She did as well as she could” or “The book is better than the movie.”)
Adverbial clauses of purpose are introduced by what subordinating conjunctions?
So, so that, in order that. (I am learning English so that I can get a better job.)
If, unless, only if, providing (that), provided (that) , even if, whether ( or not), suppose, supposing are all subordinating conjunctions introduce adverbial clauses of?
The subordinating conjunction, “only if”, emphasizes?
The condition for the result (Only if you finish the vegetables will you get dessert.)
Because, as, since, in case are all subordinating conjunctions that?
Introduce adverbial clauses of reason (Since the weather was nice, we stayed.)
Adverbial clauses of result are introduced by what subordinating conjunctions?
So, so….that, such …that, and therefore, as a result. (He was so rude that he was fired.)
The subordinating conjunction, “so…that” is structured as?
So + adjective/adverb +that. (He moved so quickly that…)
The subordinating conjunction, “such…that” is structured as?
Such + (a/an) singular countable noun + that. (He’s such a big man that…)
The subordinating conjunction, “such…that” can also be structured as?
Such + plural countable or uncountable noun + that. (They are such important matters that… or Getting such unexpected news that…)
Although, though, even though, in spite of, despite, however are all subordinating conjunctions that introduce adverbial clauses of?
What other use can “still, nevertheless or just the same” play?
Add emphasis. (Although he was tired, he went on working just the same.)
“In spite of” and “despite” are both followed by?
A noun phrase. (In spite of the bad weather, we went.)
Can “despite” be followed by ‘of ’?
Can “in spite of” and “despite” be followed by an –ing verb form?
Yes. (Despite being scared, she took the risk.)
What type of clause can modify a noun or a pronoun and give further information about them?
Adjective clauses.
Adjective clauses are also called?
Relative clauses.
Relative pronouns (that, who, which, whom), the determiner (“whose” which is used before noun to show possession) or a relative adverb (such as when, why, where, which) can be used to introduce?
Relative clauses.
When relative clauses provide necessary information about the noun they are said to be?
Defining or restrictive.
When relative clauses provide information that is not essential to but interesting, they are said to be?
Non-defining or non-restrictive.
Relative pronouns may refer either to?
A person (that , who or whom) or a thing (that or which)
The relative pronoun in the relative clause can sometimes be omitted. Yes or no?
When the relative pronoun functions as subject of the relative clause, can it be omitted?
No. (This is the boy that broke the window)
When can the relative pronoun be omitted?
When it functions as object of the relative clause.[This is the boy (that/who) I saw yesterday.]
AFTER "all, any, anything, every, everything, few, little, something, and superlatives" what is preferred “that” or “which”?
“That”is preferred. [This is everything (that) he gave me.]
In formal English, when is whom used instead of who?
When it is the object of the verb.
Can a relative pronoun be the object of a preposition?
A relative pronoun, serving as the object of a preposition, goes at the end of the sentence except?
When the relative pronouns, WHOM and WHICH are used. Then the preposition is placed before the relative pronoun. [She is the girl (who) I gave the present to. She is the girl to whom I gave the present.]
“When” (for time), “where” (place) and “why” (for reason) can be used in defining relative clauses after nouns?
Can “when” be used as a subordinating conjunction of time, as well?
Yes. [When I arrived, he was sleeping. “When I arrived”, is a subordinate adverbial clause of time. “This is the day when I graduated. “When” is giving additional information about “day”.]
If the unnecessary information about the noun, in a non-defining relative clause, is missing the sentence?
Will still make sense.
What pronouns can never be omitted in NON-DEFINING relative clauses and are always separated from the main clause by commas?
WHO, WHOM, WHICH. Note THAT can never be used in a non-defining relative clause.
Can “that” ever be used in a non-defining relative clause?
What can be used instead of “that” in a non-defining relative clause?
If a person, “who or whom” and if a thing, “which”
“Which” can also refer to the whole situation mentioned?
In the main clause. (Sally didn’t pass her final test, which means she has to repeat the whole course)
What quantifiers can be used in combination with the relative pronouns, whom and which?
Some of, many of , none of, one of.
Can “when” and “where” be used in non-defining relative clauses?
Yes. (My first baby was born in London, where we lived for 5 years.)
Does a noun phrase have a subject or verb?
Can a noun phrase function as the subject of the sentence?
Yes. (The man is tall. )
A noun phrase can also function as?
The object of the verb. (I saw the man)
Can a noun phrase function as the object to a preposition?
Yes. (I was looking at the man)
A noun phrase can function as the subject complement of the linking verb “is”?
Yes. (He is a man)
A noun clause is the subject of the sentence, if the clause contains?
A verb. (What the man said was inspiring.
The noun in a noun clause can be replaced by?
“It” or “that”. (It was inspiring. What was inspiring? What the man said)
If a clause can be replaced by a pronoun, is it an adverbial or adjective clause?
Neither, it is a noun clause.
Noun clauses can be introduced by what words?
Who, whom , whose, which, whether, what ,when ,where ,how ,why.
The noun clause in “I don’t know WHO BROKE THE WINDOW” is functioning as?
A direct object. (I don’t know that)
The noun clause is functioning in “The most important thing is that he will come soon.” as?
Subject complement (after the linking verb 'IS')
The noun clause is functioning in “Careful! Look at what you are doing!” as?
Object to the preposition 'at'
The noun clause is functioning in “Can you tell me whether or not you are coming?” as?
Direct object
The noun clause is functioning in “They explained to me how they got there.” as?
Direct object.