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64 Cards in this Set

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Proprioception
meaning "one's own" and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. Unlike the six exteroceptive senses (sight, taste, smell, touch, hearing, and balance) by which we perceive the outside world, and interoceptive senses, by which we perceive the pain and movement of internal organs, proprioception is a third distinct sensory modality that provides feedback solely on the status of the body internally. It is the sense that indicates whether the body is moving with required effort, as well as where the various parts of the body are located in relation to each other.
Haemophilus influenzae
Most often the cause of Acute Otitis Media
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Most often the cause of Acute Otitis Media
Proteus Kelebsiella
This gram negative bacteria, is most often the cause of CHRONIC Otitis Media.
Pseudomonas
This gram negative bacteria, is most often the cause of CHRONIC Otitis Media.
Allergy, Mycoplasma
and viruses also may be causative factors for Otitis Media. Otitis Media is often preceded by an upper respiratory infection.
What often predisposes infants to Otitis media infection?
The small diameter and horizontal orientation of the eustachian tube.
Pneumoncoccal otitis media may spread to where?
The meninges
Obstruction of the eustachian tube and accumulation of exudate may increase what?
Pressure within the middle ear, forcing infection into the mastoid bone or rupturing the tympanic membrane.
Name 6 interventions for Otitis media.
Antimicrobial therapy, analgesics, local heat, nasal decongestants, needle aspiration of secretions collected behind the membrane, and myringotomy.
One method of prophaylaxis against otitis media?
Use vaporizors and decongestants during an URI
Sx of Labyrinthitis?
Vertigo, tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss on the affacted side. Distruction of the cochlea or labyrinth cause permanent deafness.
What happens if you end up with Otosclerosis?
Most common in women, esp. pregnant women. Most common cause of conductive hearing loss, Fixation of ossicles reduces or prevents sound waves to transmit to the inner ear fluids.
What happens if you have Meniere's disease?
Tinnitus and vertigo
Endolymphatic Hydrops is also known as?
Meniere's disease. This is an unilateral fluctuating hearing loss. Sesorineural.
How is Menirere's disease treated?
antihistamines, antiemetics, benzodiazepines, diuretics, tranquilizers, vasoactive agents, and oral niacin.
What are the effects of Macular Degeneration?
Deterioration of the maculae of the retina and chorioid of the eye. Retinitis pigmentosa, Loss of CENTRAL VISION related to atrophy or deterioration of the macula. Peripereral vision REMAINS. This is associated with aging.
What are the sx of CATARACTs?
Loss of transparency. A gray-white opacity can be seen within the lens, behind the pupil.
When do Degenerative changes most often occur?
After age 50.
Is Cataracts inherited?
Yes, there is a tendency.
A viral infection during the 1st trimester of gestation can cause what with the eyes?
Congenital cataracts - usually hereditary may be caused by viral infection during the first trimester of gestation. The soft cataracts of children and young adults may either be incised and drained or fragmented by ultrasound, followed by irrigation and aspiration of the fragments through a minute incision.
What is the leading cause of blindness in adults under 40?
Retinopathy - noninflammatory eye disorder resulting from changes in the retinal blood vessels, ex due to poorly controlled diabetes.
Elevated pressure within the eye is?
Glaucoma- an abnormal condition. Usually because of obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor may be acute or chronic (more common).
What causes Acute Glaucoma?
Pupil in an eye with a narrow angle b/t iris and cornea dialates markedly, causing the folded iris to block the exit of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber.
Symtoms of Acute Glaucoma are?
Extreme ocular pain, blurred vision, a red eye, and a dilated pupil. N &V may occur.
Treatment of Acute Glaucoma is?
Eye drops to constrict the pupil and draw the iris away from the cornea. Mannitol, glycerol, acetazolamide, surgical iridectomy (an incision through the cornea to produce a filtraion pathway for aqueous humor.
An occular emergency is?
Acute angle Closure Glaucoma. Results in rapid visual impairment. Sudden attack of increased intraocular pressure with a bulging iris.
Between Acute angle closure glaucoma and Chronic open angle or wide angle glaucoma, which is most common?
Chronic open angle or wide angle glaucoma is most common. Often bilateral. Develops slowly and is genetically determined.
SX of Chronic open angle or wide angle glaucoma
Cupping of the optic discs. HALOS AROUND LIGHTS. central blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure by tonometry. Slow LOSS OF PERIPHERAL VISION.
RX for Chronic open angle or wide angle glaucoma
miotic eye drops such as pilocarpine, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, epinephrine eye drops, timolol, beta adrenergic blocking agent.
What causes Conjunctivitis?
bacterial, viral or an allergy, or environmental.
DX of Conjunctivitis?
microscopic examination or bacteriologic culture of the discharge.
Opthalmia neonatorum
A frequent cause is a gonococcal infection, which may lead to blindness if untreated. Also called Conjunctivitis.
SX of Retinal Detachment are?
PainLESS (the retina does not contain sensory nerves that relay sensations of pain). Floaters, Flashing lights, As long as the center of the retina is unaffected, the vision, when looking straight ahead, is normal. When the center is affected, the eyesight is distorted, wavy, and indistinct. Total blindness can occur if the process is not halted.
RX of Retinal detachment?
Surgical will not spontaneously heal. Use of laser to form scar and close the detached area.
Antaligic Gait
abnormality in the heel strike through push-off action
Lurch
Swing phase abnormality
What is the 2nd leading cause of death in the elderly?
Falls
DYSEQUILIBRIUM
Unsteadyiness, imbalance, gait disturbance. A feeling primarily involving the trunk and lower extremities rather than the head, that a fall is imminent.
The dB range for Moderately severe hearing loss is?
56 to 70 dB range
The dB range for severely impaired hearing loss is?
70 to 90 dB range
The dB range for Profoundly deaf is?
greater than 91 dB.
Define Visual Impairment?
decreased acuity, blurred vision, double vision, blind spots, halos, photosensitivity, etc.
Neurovascular Deficits is?
impaired pain perception and perception of temparature changes in extremities. Paresthesia - burning, prickling, tingling sensation.
What is the method of distinguishing conductive from sensorineural hearing loss?
RINNE TEST
What are the Rinne Fork cycles?
256, 512, 1024, placed 1/2" from the external auditory meatus and again with the vibrating stem placed over the mastoid.
Using the Rinne test how Sensorineural loss is detected ?
RINNE test, the sound is heard longer by air conduction.
Using the Rinne test how Conductive hearing loss is determined?
RINNE test the sound is heard longer by bone conduction.
How is auditory acuity tested?
WEBER TEST - the test is performed by placing the stem of a vibrating 256 Hz tuning fork in the center of the forehead, the midline vertex, or on the maxillary incisors.
Using the WEBER test how Conductive hearing loss is determined?
the loss of sound is louder in the affected ear, because it does not hear ordinary background noise through the air and receives only vibrations by bone conduction.
Using the WEBER test how Sensorineural loss is detected ?
in one ear, the unaffected ear perceives the sound as louder.
Using the WEBER test how is normal hearing detected ?
The loudness of the sound is equal in both ears.
Air-Puff Tonometer
does NOT touch the eye, records deflections of the cornea from a puff of pressurized air.
Schiotz impression and the Aplanation tonometers do what?
record the pressure needed to indent or flatten the corneal surface. Elevated pressure reveals glaucoma.
What is the ROMBERG test?
an indication of loss of the sense of position in which the patient loses balance when standing erect, feet together, eyes closed.
Myotic Meds do what?
CONSTRICT THE PUPIL
Driatics Meds do what?
DDDDDDDialate the pupil
Postop care for Myringotomy
LIE ON THE AFFECTED SIDE TO IMPROVE DRAINAGE FROM THE MIDDLE EAR. Special care when bathing, swimming
Preop/Postop care for Cataract removal
Eye medication to prepare the eye for surgery. Implantaion of an intraocular lens. Use of a patch over the affected eye, MIOTIC eye drops and cold compresses for discomfort. LAYING FACE DOWN POST OP.
Maggie works in a very noisy machine shop for 28 years before retirement. She now has a hearing loss which has been determined to be work-related. Which type of deafness is she most likely to have?
Otosclerosis, sensorineural, conduction, tinnitus
sensorineural
Which sx is most common in patients with a detached retina? 1-bright flashes of light 2-sudden blindness 3-burning eye pain 3-continual mucous secretion from the eye
1-bright flashes of light
Peggy Sue is a 4yr old who has just undergone insertion of tympanostomy tubes. Her parents should be given all of the following advice except:
1-Keep ears as dry as possible during bathing 2-When ABX are prescribed, administer the med for the full length of prescribed treatment. 3-Notify the DR or emergency rm. ASAP if a tube falls out. 4- If the ear is draing, the external canal may be cleansed with cotton swabs which have been soaked in hydrogen peroxide.
3-Notify the DR or emergency rm. ASAP if a tube falls out.
Trabeculoplasty
Done in the doctor's office to remove the flow of fluids out of the eye (Glaucoma pts)
Trabeculectomy
creates new drainage path in the eye for Glaucoma patients. Usually under the eyelid. This must be done in an operating room.