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117 Cards in this Set

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detect changes and generate impulses. are usually very specific with respect to the kinds of changes they repsond to.
receptors
transmit impulses from receptors to the central nervous system. these sensory nuerons are found in both spinal nerves and cranial nerves, but each carries impulses from only one type of receptor
sensory neurons
white matter in the spinal cord or brain that transmits the impulses to a specific part of the brain
sensory tracts
most are in the cerebral cortex. these areas feel and interpret the sensations
sensory area
the sensation seems to come from the area where the receptors were stimulated
projection
after amputation of a limb you can still pain
phantom pain
some sensations are felt more distictley and to a greater degree than are others
intensity
the effect of a previous or simultaneous on a current sensation, which may then be exaggerated or diminished
contrast
becoming unaware of a continuing stimulus
adaptation
the sensation remains in the consciousness even after the stimulus has stopped
after image
the recetors for pain, heat and cold
free nerve endings
receptors for touch and pressure
encapsulated nerve endings
provide us with information about the external enviroment adn also about the skin
cutaneous senses
sensory ares for the skin are in the
parietal lobes
sensetivity of an area of skin is determined by
number of receptors present
free nerve endings are also found in
internal organs
sometimes pain that originates in an internal organ may be felt in a cutaneous are is called
referred pain
referred pain is a creation of the
brain
stretch receptors detect
strethching and generate impulses
muscle sense is important to
coordination and walking
conscious muscle sense is felt by the
parietal lobes
unconscious muscle sense is used by the
cerebellum to coordinate voluntary movements
the receptors for taste are found in
taste buds
most taste buds are found in the
papillae on the tongue
detect chemicals in solution the mouth
chemorecptors
four general types of taste receptors
sweet, sour, salty, bitter
the impulses from taste buds are transmitted by the
facial and glossopharyngeal in the parietal-temporal cortex
the receptors for smell that detect vapored chemicals that have been sniffed into the upper nasal cavities
chemoreceptors
when stimulated by vapor molecules generate impulses carried by the olfactory nerves through the ethhoid bone to the olfactory bulbs
olfactory receptors
moves the tongue is not related to taste
hypoglossal
hunger and thirst are called
viseral sensations
the receptors for both senses are specialized cell in the
hypothalamus
hunger is project to the _______ which contracts
stomach
thirst is projected to the _____ and _____ and less saliva is produced
mouth and pharynx
along the border of each eyelid help keep dust out of the eyes
eye lashes
eyelids are lined with a thin membrane called
conjuctiva
ofter caused by allergies and makes the eyes red, itchy, and watery
conjuctivitis
produced by the lacrimal gland
tears
located at the upper, outer corner of the eyeball, within the orbit
lacrimal glands
tears contain
lysozyme
an enzyme that inhibits the growth of most bacteria on the wet, warm surface of the eye
lysozyme
these ducts take tears to the
lacrimal sac
empties tears into the nasal cavity
nasolacrimal duct
at the medail corner of the eyelids are two small openings into the
superior and inferior lacrimal canals
most the eyeball is within and protected by the
orbit
attached to this bony socket and to the surface of the eyeball
extrinsic muscles
four rectus muscles that move the eyeball
up and down or side to side
2 oblique muscles that
rotate the eye
the 3 layers of the eyeball
outer sclera, middle choroid layer and inner retina
is the thickest layer and is made of fibrous connective tissue that is visible as the white of the eye
sclera
the most anterior portion it is transparnent and no capillaries
cornea
the cornea is the first part of the eye that _________, or bends, light rays
refracts
contains blood vessels and a dark blue pigment that absorbs light with the eyeball and thereby prevents glare
choroid layer
is a circular muslce that surronds the edge of the lens and is connected to the lens
ciliary body
ciliary body is connected to the lens by
suspensory ligaments
made of a transparent, elastic protein, and like the cornea has no capillaries
lens
enables the eye to focu light from objects are varying distances from the eye
lens
just in front of the lens, also the colored part of the eye
iris
pigment of the eye is a form of
melanin
the central opening of the eyeball
pupil
lines the posterior two-thirds of the eyeball and contains the visual reciptors, the rods and cones
retina
detect only the presense of light
rods
detect colors
cones
most abundant in the center of the retina
cones
directly behind the center of the lens
macula lutea
contains only cones, is a small depression in the macula and is the area for best color vision
fovea
neurons that carry out the impulses generated by the rods and cones
ganglion neurons
formed by the ganglion nuerons, transmits impulses from the retina to the brain
optic nerve
contain rhodopsin and detect the prescense of light
rods
the area o fhte retina where the optic nerve passes through; no rods or cones are present
optic disc
between the lens and the retina, contains vitreous humor
posterior cavity
between the cornea and the lens, contains aqueous humor
anterior cavity
the tissue fluid of the eye; nourishes the lens and cornea
aqueous humor
helps hold the retina in place
vitreous humor
small veins that reabsorb aqueous humor
canal of schlemm
light rays is the deflection or bending of a ray of light as it passes through on object and into another object of greater or lesser density
refraction
the only adjustable part of the refraction system
lens
chemical that breaks down to from scotopsin and reinal found in rods
rhodopsin
chemical reaction in the cones, also involving retinal, are brought about by different
wavelengths of light
three types of cones
red-absorbing, blue-absorbing, and green-absorbing
the visual areas are in the ______ of the _________________
part of brain
occipital lobes, cerebral cortex
for near vision the pupils __________ to bloak out peripheral light rays that would otherwise bulr the image
constrict
the eyes ____________ to keep the images on the corresponding parts of both retinas
converge
the ear contains the receptors for two senses
hearing and equilibrium
these receptors are found in the
inner ear
consists of the auricle and the ear canal
outer ear
made of cartilage covered with skin
auricle or pinna
lined with skin that contains cerminous glands
ear canal
tunnel into the temporal bone, curving slightly forward and down
external auditory canal
air filled cavity in the temporal bone
middle ear
stretched across the end of the ear canal and vibrates when sound waves strike it
eardrum and tympanic membrane
3 auditory bones
malleus, incus, stapes
stapes tranmits vibration to the fluid filled inner ear at the
oval window
entends from the middle ear to the nasopharynx and permits air to leave the middle ear cavity
eustachian tube
swallowing of yawning creates a _____ by opening the eustachian tubes and equalizing the air pressure
pop
the eustachain tubes of children are_____ and ________ and may prevent bacteria to spread from the pharynx to the middle ear.
short, horizontal
may be a complication of strep throat
otitis media
fluid found between bone and membrane
perilymph
fluid within the membranous structures of the inner ear
emdolymph
within the temporal bone cavity that is a maze
bony labyrinth
shaped like a snail shell with two and a half structral turns
cochlea
the structure in the cochlea of the inner ear that contains the receptors for hearing
organ of corti
following sequence for vibrations transmitted are
eardrum, malleus, incus, stape, oval window of the inner ear, perilymph and endolymph with the cochlea, and hair cells of the organ of corti
final structure of the hearing pathway
round window
a membranous sac in the vestible of the inner ear that contains receptors for static equilibrium
utricle
membranous sac in the vestibule of the inner ear that contains receptors for static equilibrium
saccule
a gelatinous membrane with tiny crystals of calcium carbonate
otoliths
fluid filled membranous ovals oriented in three different planes
semicircular canals
contains hair cells that are affected by movement
ampulla
the aorta and carotid arteeries contain receptors that detect changes in the blood
arortic arch
branches of the aortic arch that take blood through the neck on the way to the brain
carotid arteries
in the carotid sinuses and aoartic sinus detect changes in blood pressure
pressoreceptors
in the carotid bodies and the aortic body detect changes in the oxygen and carbon dioxide content, and the pH, of blood
chemoreceptors
sensory impulses are carried by the
glossopharyngeal and vagus
may increase the repirtory rate and the heart rate to obtain and circulate more oxygen
medulla
in which the central vision becomes impaired is major cause for people over 65
macular degeneration
after 60 damage to the hair cells in the
organ of corti