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25 Cards in this Set

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A viewpoint relative to an object that results in perception of an rarely encountered property of the object
Accidental Viewpoint
A procedure that is guaranteed to result in the solution to a problem. For example, the procedures we learn for addition, subtraction, and long division.
Algorithm
An illusion of movement that occurs between two objects separated in space when the objects are flashed rapidly on and off, one after another, separated by a brief time period
Apparent Movement
When the neural response to a stimulus is influenced by the context within which the stimulus occurs. This term has been used to refer to the situation in which a neuron's response is influenced by stimulation of an area outside its receptive field.
Contextual Modulation
Generally, the ability to ditinguish between one stimulus an another. In the recognition-by-components theory of object perception, this is a property of geons, whcih indicates that each geon can be distinguished from other geons from almost all viewpoints.
Discriminability
The perceptual separation of a figure from its background
Figure-Ground Segregation
The volumetric features of Biederman's recognition-by-components theory of object perception
Geons
An approach to psychology that focuses on developing principles of perceptual organization, proposing that "the whole differs from the sum of its parts."
Gestalt Psychology
The idea that a particular image on the retina could have been caused by an infinite number of different objects. Thus, the retinal image does not unabiguously specify a stimulus.
Inverse Projection Problem
In perception, a rule of thumb that provides a best guess estimate of the identity of a particular stimulus.
Heuristic
The assumption that light usually comes from above, which influences our perception of form in some situations.
Light-from-above heuristic
The idea proposed by Helmholtz that we perceive the object that is most likely to have caused the pattern of stimuli we have perceived
Likelihood principle
A visual pattern that, when presented immediately after a visual stimulus, decreases a person's ability to preceive the stimulus. This stops the persistence of vision and therefore limits the effective duration of the stimulus.
Masking stimulus
Properties of edges in the retinal image that correspond to the properties of edges in the three-dimnestional environment. For example, one of these of a rectangular solid is three parallel edges. These are visible from most viewpoints.
Non-accidental properties
Enhanced sensisity to vertiacally and horizontally oriented visual stimuli. This effect has been demonstrated by measureing bothe perception and neural responding.
Oblique effect
Regularly occuring physical properties of the envrionment. For example, there are more vertical and horizontal orientation in the environment than angled orientations. Also light-from-above heuristic is an example of this.
Regularities
A principle of the recognition-by-components model that states that we can rapidly and correctly identify an object if we can perceive its individual geons
Componential Recovery
Aspect of objects that have properties that don't change when viewed from different angles.
Viewpoint Invariance
The idea proposed by Helmholtz that some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions that we make about the environment.
Theory of unconscious inference
The approach to psychology that postulated that perceptions result from the summation of many elementay sensations
Structuralism
Elementary elements that, according to the structuralists, combine to create perceptions
Sensations
Characteristics associated with the function carried out in different types of scenes.
Semantic Regularities
A view of a realworld environment that contains background elements and multiple objects that are organized in a meaningful way relative to eaach other and the background.
Scene
A figure-ground pattern that perceptually reverses as it is viewed, so that the figure becomes the ground and the ground becomes the figure.
Reversible figure-ground
Characteristics of the environment that occur regularly and in many different situations
Regularities