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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an oscillation that travels through a medium by transferring energy from one particle or point to another without causing any permanent displacement of the medium.
a quantum of visible light or other form of electromagnetic radiation demonstrating both particle and wave properties.
to take up light, noise, or energy and not transmit it at all.
the bending or spreading out of waves--for example, of sound or light--as they pass around the edge of an obstacle or through a narrow aperture.
to redirect something that strikes a surface, especially light, sound, or heat, usually back toward its point of origin.
to pass something (e.g. light) on.
1. to alter the course of a wave of energy that passes into something from another medium, as water does to light entering it from the air. 2. to measure the degree of refraction in a lens or eye.
a picture or likeness.
the transparent "window" into the eyeball.
allowing light to pass through with no interruption so that objects on the other side can be clearly seen.
Aqueous humor
the water fluid in the anterior chamber.
Crystalline lens
the lens inside the eye which enables changing focus.
the dark circular opening at the center of the iris in the eye, where light enters the eye.
the colored part of the eye, consisting of a muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil and regulating the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil.
Vitreous humor
the transparent fluid that fills the vitreous chamber in the posterior part of the eye.
a light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye that contains rods and cones, which receive an image from the lens and send it to the brain through the optic nerve.
the process by which the eye changes its focus (in which the lens gets fatter as you direct your gaze toward nearer objects).
the happy condition of no refractive error.
a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused in front of the retina and distant objects cannot be seen sharply.
a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused behind the retina.
a visual defect caused by the unequal curving of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the eye, usually the cornea.
refers to the conversion from one form of energy (e.g., light) to another (e.g., electricity)
the eye doctor's view of the retina and optic nerve.
light sensitive receptors in the retina.
photoreceptors that are specialized for night vision.
photoreceptors that are specialized for daylight vision, fine visual acuity and color.
referring to the retina, meaning that it consists of two parts: the rods and cones, which operate under different conditions.
Outer segment
part of a photoreceptor which contains photopigment molecules.
Inner segment
part of the photoreceptor that lies between the outer segment and the cell nucleus.
Synaptic terminal
the location where axons terminate at the synapse for transmission of information by release of a chemical transmitter.
the light-catching part of the visual pigments of the retina.
the visual pigment found in rods.
activation by light
an increase in membrane potential where the inner membrane surface becomes more negative that the outer membrane surface.
Graded potential
an electrical potential that can vary continuously in amplitude.
referring to the distance between the retinal image and the fovea.
Horizontal cells
specialized retinal cells that contact both photoreceptor and bipolar cells.
Lateral inhibition
antagonistic neural interaction between adjacent regions of the retina.
Amacrine cells
retinal cells found in the inner synaptic layer which make synaptic contacts with bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and one another.
Diffuse bipolar cells
bipolar retinal cells whose processes are spread out to receive input from multiple cones.
Midget bipolar cells
Small cone bipolar cells in the central retina that receive input from a single cone.
1. able to perceive via the sense organs. 2. extremely responsive to radiation, especially to light of a specific wavelength. 3. able to respond to transmitted signals.
Visual acuity
a measure of the finest detail that one can resolve.
ON midget bipolar
a small cone bipolar cell that depolarizes in response to an increase in light intensity.
OFF midget bipolar
a small cone bipolar cell that depolarizes in response to a decrease in light intensity.
Midget ganglion cells
small ganglion cells that receive excitatory input from single midget bipolar cells in the central retina.
Parasol ganglion cells
a unistratisfied ganglion cell that looks like an umbrella, and receives input from diffuse bipolar cells.
Receptive field
the region in space in which stimuli will activate a neuron.
ON-center cell
a cell that depolarizes in response to an increase in light intensity in its receptive field center.
OFF-center cell
a cell that depolarizes in response to a decrease in light intensity in its receptive field center.
the difference in luminance between an object and the back ground or between lighter and darker pars of the same object.
an acoustic, electrical, electronic, or optical device, instrument, computer program, or neuron that allows the passage of some frequencies or digital elements and blocks the passage of others.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
a progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night vision and peripheral vision. Retinitis pigmentosa commonly runs in families and can be caused by defects in a number of different genes that have recently been identified.