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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Wave
an oscillation that travels through a medium by transferring energy from one particle or point to another without causing any permanent displacement of the medium.
Photon
a quantum of visible light or other form of electromagnetic radiation demonstrating both particle and wave properties.
Absorb
to take up light, noise, or energy and not transmit it at all.
Diffraction
the bending or spreading out of waves--for example, of sound or light--as they pass around the edge of an obstacle or through a narrow aperture.
Reflect
to redirect something that strikes a surface, especially light, sound, or heat, usually back toward its point of origin.
Transmit
to pass something (e.g. light) on.
Refract
1. to alter the course of a wave of energy that passes into something from another medium, as water does to light entering it from the air. 2. to measure the degree of refraction in a lens or eye.
Image
a picture or likeness.
Cornea
the transparent "window" into the eyeball.
Transparent
allowing light to pass through with no interruption so that objects on the other side can be clearly seen.
Aqueous humor
the water fluid in the anterior chamber.
Crystalline lens
the lens inside the eye which enables changing focus.
Pupil
the dark circular opening at the center of the iris in the eye, where light enters the eye.
Iris
the colored part of the eye, consisting of a muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil and regulating the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil.
Vitreous humor
the transparent fluid that fills the vitreous chamber in the posterior part of the eye.
Retina
a light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye that contains rods and cones, which receive an image from the lens and send it to the brain through the optic nerve.
Accomodation
the process by which the eye changes its focus (in which the lens gets fatter as you direct your gaze toward nearer objects).
Emmetropia
the happy condition of no refractive error.
Myopia
a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused in front of the retina and distant objects cannot be seen sharply.
Hyperopia
a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused behind the retina.
Astigmatism
a visual defect caused by the unequal curving of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the eye, usually the cornea.
Transduced
refers to the conversion from one form of energy (e.g., light) to another (e.g., electricity)
Fundus
the eye doctor's view of the retina and optic nerve.
Photoreceptor
light sensitive receptors in the retina.
Rods
photoreceptors that are specialized for night vision.
Cones
photoreceptors that are specialized for daylight vision, fine visual acuity and color.
Duplex
referring to the retina, meaning that it consists of two parts: the rods and cones, which operate under different conditions.
Outer segment
part of a photoreceptor which contains photopigment molecules.
Inner segment
part of the photoreceptor that lies between the outer segment and the cell nucleus.
Synaptic terminal
the location where axons terminate at the synapse for transmission of information by release of a chemical transmitter.
Chromophore
the light-catching part of the visual pigments of the retina.
Rhodopsin
the visual pigment found in rods.
Photoactivation
activation by light
Hyperpolarization
an increase in membrane potential where the inner membrane surface becomes more negative that the outer membrane surface.
Graded potential
an electrical potential that can vary continuously in amplitude.
Eccentricity
referring to the distance between the retinal image and the fovea.
Horizontal cells
specialized retinal cells that contact both photoreceptor and bipolar cells.
Lateral inhibition
antagonistic neural interaction between adjacent regions of the retina.
Amacrine cells
retinal cells found in the inner synaptic layer which make synaptic contacts with bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and one another.
Diffuse bipolar cells
bipolar retinal cells whose processes are spread out to receive input from multiple cones.
Midget bipolar cells
Small cone bipolar cells in the central retina that receive input from a single cone.
Sensitive
1. able to perceive via the sense organs. 2. extremely responsive to radiation, especially to light of a specific wavelength. 3. able to respond to transmitted signals.
Visual acuity
a measure of the finest detail that one can resolve.
ON midget bipolar
a small cone bipolar cell that depolarizes in response to an increase in light intensity.
OFF midget bipolar
a small cone bipolar cell that depolarizes in response to a decrease in light intensity.
Midget ganglion cells
small ganglion cells that receive excitatory input from single midget bipolar cells in the central retina.
Parasol ganglion cells
a unistratisfied ganglion cell that looks like an umbrella, and receives input from diffuse bipolar cells.
Receptive field
the region in space in which stimuli will activate a neuron.
ON-center cell
a cell that depolarizes in response to an increase in light intensity in its receptive field center.
OFF-center cell
a cell that depolarizes in response to a decrease in light intensity in its receptive field center.
Contrast
the difference in luminance between an object and the back ground or between lighter and darker pars of the same object.
Filter
an acoustic, electrical, electronic, or optical device, instrument, computer program, or neuron that allows the passage of some frequencies or digital elements and blocks the passage of others.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
a progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night vision and peripheral vision. Retinitis pigmentosa commonly runs in families and can be caused by defects in a number of different genes that have recently been identified.