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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
it is the process by which the brain constructs an internal representation of the world= our reality: Was the first question of the philosophers;We cannot directly experience the outside world. We are experiencing internal construction; the internal representation gets distorted with high fever, sensory deprivation, drugs, schizophrenia;(hallucinations)
It is continuously on-going process; it continually changing
The internal representation comes from:
1. Sensory information
2. Memory(past experience)
3. Beliefs (internal representation)
4. Expectations
*different among all people
The Five Senses:
1. Sight (vission)
2. Hearing (auditory)
3. Taste
4. Smell
5. Skin senses=touch, cold, warmth, pain
receptors are...
specialized nerve cell that converts physical stimulation into electrical information transmittal to the brain;
stimulated in two ways
1. Chemically: taste, smell, skin senses
2. Mechanically: Vision, auditory, skin senses
Visual Processing
Light energy is transformed into neural activity in the brain
Light=quanta=photons=packets of energy
Our range of vision is very small:
Characteristics of light
1. Intensity
2. Wavelength
Quanta (light) are
Absorbed or Reflected
Only light that enters the eye ....
can be converted; it is the human sense most used
The Eye:
An image forms on the retina at the rear of the eye; In the retina, quanta in converted into neural activity
Retina consists of
1. Rods
2. Cones
1 type—more sensitive; for night vision; see only gray, black or white (120 million rods)
3 types—for day vision; for color and fine detail (8 million)
curved, white surface
colored part, behind the cornea
size of the opening; controls the amount of light entering; large in the dark, small in the light
- behind the iris; focus light on the retina; cannot see it without a special instrument. It changes in shape (when older can cause you to see peripheral only)
Size of an Image-depends on
on the retina
1. Size of the object
2. Distance from the eye
Optic Charisma
blind spot; crossover area to the other side of the brain
Visual Noise
nerve impulses even in the absence of light/ this is under your threshold
Retinal Disparity-
=receive two different images because our eyes are in different places. (that’s why we see 4 when drunk)
Dark Adaptation
it takes to see in the dark)the lowest intensity of light that can be seen at a given time. Red goggles can make you see more quickly in the dark
amount of physical stimulus required to see correctly ( below-not detected; above-is detected)
Absolute threshold
minimum amount of stimulus energy detected in the dark
Relative Threshold
differential threshold is the amount of stimulus energy required to see a light against a background of fixed light; the brighter the light, the more intense the spot has to be, and it will appear not as strong against a brighter light. everything is relitive
Resolution Threshold(Visual Acuity)-
ability to discriminate fine details. the lower the threshold-better acuity(vision); poor acuity- harder to see; low light- poor visual acuity
Snellen Chart
eye chart) letters you can read while standing 20 feet away
set of experiences; consists of
Hue=different qualitative (names-red, blue)
Saturation= how much hue there is (white—red)
Brightness- light to dark (white—black)
High Activity= red
Color Blindness-
missing one or more cones; 4 types; most common is red-green see blue-yellow; only men have it, comes from the mother
General Principles Bright contrast
brightness of an object depends on the adjacent stimulation; gray square surrounded by white appears darker than a gray square surrounded by black
General Principles Perception of Objects
Even if a stimulus is ambiguous you create an internal representation that will be clear; people see different things looking at the same stimulus
General Principles Object Perception
things are grouped together in the simplest manner
General Principles Proximity
things are viewed together
General Principles Similarity
similar things are seen together
General Principles Closure
closed whole is viewed
General Principles no name
Properties of objects remain constant in spite of changing viewing conditions
Sound Waves
caused by vibrations, expressed in: Frequency
Amptitude-expressions in decibels
The Ear:- 3 parts
1. Outer ear-
2. Middle ear-
3. Inner ear-
Inner ear-
vibrations are transformed to nerve signals and sent to the brain; long tube= cochlea; filled with fluid; divided in length by a flexible membrane=basilar membranes; has hair cells
long tubefilled with fluid
Outer ear-
sounds enter here and cause the eardrum to vibrate
Middle ear-
3 bones-smallest in the body; transmit sound to the inner ear (hammer,anvil,____)
Most important function of hearing
makes speech possible
Auditory Experiences-
special sounds creating a physical and psychological effect
Spatial Localization
Auditory system helps us to locate objects in space; the two ears are stimulated differently since they are in different places; it can be practiced for improvement; blind people are best at this
Taste buds
on the surface of the tongue; 10,000 buds on the tongue; each receptor lasts 4 days.
4 Dimensions of Taste:
1. Sweet- tip
2. Salty-side
3. Sour-side
4. Bitter-back
Upper part of the nasal cavity; 30 million receptors in each nostril; extraordinary sensitivity to odors; sense most used by animals.
2 Major functions in Animals:
1. To find food
2. Communication-consists of:
a. Territorial marking
b. Sexual attraction
chemical produced for the purpose of communication
*Smells have a profound effect on
human’s interpersonal behavior at a non-verbal and emotional level
Skin contact- 4 qualities/sensations:
1. Warm
2. Cold
3. Touch
4. Pain
Most objects produce a combination of sensations; not just one sensation
Right side of brain function is selective;
brain function isdetermined by
2-needs at the moment
Range of vison
Normal--- 20/20, 20/20
Better--- 20/15, 20/10
Poor---20/30, 20/40
feet away/feet can see