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68 Cards in this Set

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Emphysema
lung disease in which the alveoli enlarge.
Asthma
lung disorder in which the bronchial tubes contract quickly and cause shortness of breath, wheezing, or coughing: may occur as an allergic reaction.
Urine
Wastewater that contains excess water, salts, and other wastes that are not reabsorbed by the body.
Urinary system
system of excretory organs that rids the blood of wastes, controls blood volume by removing excess water, and balances concentrations of salts and water.
Nutrient
Substance in food – proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water – that the body uses for cell development, repair, and growth and that provide energy.
Protein
Nutrient made up of amino acids that is used for replacement and repair of body cells and has large molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen: found in meats fish, and beans.
Atrium
two upper chambers of the heart that contract at the same time during a heartbeat.
Genetics
the study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles
Genotype
an organism’s genetic makeup.
Heterozygous
describes an organism with two different alleles for a trait.
Neuron
basic functioning unit of the nervous system, made up of a cell body, dendrites, and axons.
Antibiotics
chemical produced by some bacteria that limits the growth of other bacteria.
Aerobe
organism that uses oxygen for respiration.
Mammal
any of a class of warm blooded vertebrates that suckle their young.
Biome
large geographic areas with similar climates and cosystems; includes tundra, taiga, desert, temperate deciduous forest, temperate rain forest, tropical rain forest, and grassland.
Organism
a life form.
Vertebrate
having a backbone.
Grassland
temperate and tropical regions with 25 cm to 75 cm of precipitation each year that are dominated by climax communities of grasses; ideal for growing crops and raising cattle and sheep.
Amino acid
building blocks of proteins.
Carbohydrate
the body’s main energy source – sugars, starch, and fiber – formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms: found in fruit, pasta, and whole-grain cereals and breads.
Fat
Nutrient that provides energy and helps he body absorb vitamins: can be saturated (meats and cheeses) or unsaturated ( liquid vegetable oil and fat found in poultry, fish and nuts).
Vitamin
organic, water-soluble or fat-soluble nutrient needed in small quantities for growth, regulating body functions and preventing disease.
Mineral
inorganic nutrient that regulates many of the body’s chemical reactions: builds cells, sends nerve impulses, and carries oxygen.
Food group
one of five groups of foods that contain the same nutrients: breads and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk & Meat.
Ventricles
two lower chambers of the heart that contract at the same time during a heartbeat.
Heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring.
Phenotype
outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism.
Dendrite
neuron structure that receives messages and sends them to the cell body.
Synapse
small space across which an impulse moves from an axon to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron.
Toxin
a poisonous substance.
Omnivore
plant and meat-eating animal with incisors specialized to cut vegetables, premolars to chew meat, and molars to grind food.
Marsupial
mammal that gives birth to incompletely developed young that finish developing in their mother’s pouch.
Smooth muscle
involuntary, nonstriated muscle that controls movement of internal organs.
Ecosystem
all the living organisms that live in an area and the nonliving features of their environment.
Taiga
world’s largest biome, located south of the tundra between 50 N and 60 N latitude; has long, cold winters, precipitation between 35 cm and 100 cm each year, cone-bearing evergreen trees, and dense forests.
Invertebrate
an animal without a backbone.
Desert
driest biome on Earth with less than 25 cm of rain each year; has dunes or thin soil with little oranic matter and plants and animals specially adapted to survive extreme conditions.
Digestion
chemical and mechanical process that breaks food down into small molecules so that they can be absorbed by the body.
Mechanical digestion
digestive system process where food is broken down through chewing, mixing, and churning.
Peristalsis
waves of muscular contractions that move food through the digestive system.
Chemical digestion
digestive system process that occurs when chemicals break down large food molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed by the body.
Chyme
thin, watery product of digestion that moves slowly out of the stomach and into the small intestine.
Artery
blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart and has thick, elastic walls made of connective tissue and smooth muscle tissue.
Hemoglobin
chemical in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to body cells and carries some carbon dioxide from body cells back to the lungs.
Allele
an alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait; can be dominant or recessive.
Homozygous
describes an organism with two alleles that are the same for a trait.
Axon
neuron structure that carries messages away from the cell body.
Pathogen
any organism that causes disease.
Vaccine
provides immunity from bacterial diseases such as diphtheria and tetanus, and is made from particles taken from damaged bacterial cell walls or from killed bacteria.
Herbivore
plant-eating mammal with incisors specialized to cut vegetation and large, flat molars to grind it.
Photosynthesis
food-making process that takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, where light energy is used to produce glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.
Cardiac muscle
striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart.
Community
all the populations of different species that live in an ecosystem.
Tundra
cold, dry treeless biome with less than 25 cm of precipitation each year, a short growing season, permafrost, and winters that can be six to nine months long.
Protist
one- or many-celled eukaryotic organism that lives in moist or wet surroundings; can be plantlike, animal-like, or funguslike.
Scurvy
A disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C, characterized by spongy and bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, and extreme weakness.
Calorie
the large calorie used to measure the energy produced by food.
Enzyme
a type of protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions in the body but is not used up or changed itself in any way during the reaction.
Capillary
microscopic blood vessel that connects arteries and veins; has walls one cell thick, through which nutrients and oxygen diffuse into body cells and waste materials and carbon dioxide diffuse out.
Exoskeleton
rigid, protective body covering of an arthropod that supports the body and reduces water loss.
Endotherm
warm-blooded animal whose body temperature does not change with its surrounding environment.
Ectotherm
cold-blooded animal whose body temperature changes with the temperature of its surrounding environment.
Carnivore
meat-eating animal with sharp canine teeth specialized to rip and tear flesh.
Skeletal muscle
voluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs, and is attached to bones by tendons.
Tendon
thick band of tissue that attaches bones to muscles.
Population
all the organisms that belong to the same species living in a community.
Rain forest
A dense evergreen forest occupying a tropical region with an annual rainfall of at least 2.5 meters (100 inches).
Bacteria
microorganisms that cause disease, fermentation, etc.