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97 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Definition of a wave:
a periodic series of disturbances
Name 2 major types of waves:
Electromagnetic and mechanical
Name 2 types of MECHANICAL waves:
Transverse and longitudinal
What is a transverse wave?
The medium moves perpendicular to the direction of propagation
What is a longitudinal wave?
The medium moves parallel to the direction of propagation
What is a pulse?
a singular disturbance
Definition of amplitude:
the maximum displacement from equilibrium position
Definition of wavelength:
the straight-line distance between 2 adjacent, in-phase points on a wave
What does frequency depend on?
the oscillator
What does wave speed depend on?
the medium
Put the 3 phases of matter in order from fastest wave speed to slowest wave speed.
solid, liquid, gas
___________ waves do not need a medium.
Electromagnetic
What is the fundamental harmonic?
the first harmonic
The harmonics for one fixed end and one free end can only be ___ numbers
odd
The qualitative quality for frequency is:
pitch
The qualitative quality for amplitude is:
energy (loudness)
The qualitative quality for harmonics is:
sound quality (timbre)
What is resonance?
One object causing another object to vibrate at its natural frequency.
Is there a relationship between pulse speed and amplitude?
No
Is there a relationship between tension and pulse speed?
Yes. More tension = faster pulse speed
Is there a relationship between pulse speed and pulse width?
No
Is there a relationship between frequency and wavelength?
Yes. Frequency and wavelength have an inverse relationship in the same medium.
What is the Law of Reflection?
The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection (when measured from the normal).
The direction of propagation is ______ to the wavefront.
perpendicular
What is a reflection?
A reflection is a wave that bounces off a barrier that doesn't absorb the wave's energy.
What changes occur to a wave that bounces off a straight barrier?
Only direction
What changes occur to a wave that bounces off a curved barrier?
Direction and shape
Define refraction:
The bending of a wavefront due to a change in speed (generally due to a change in medium)
What changes occur to a wave that enters a shallower region?
Wavelength, wave speed, direction
Define diffraction:
The spreading of a wave beyond a small opening, without a change in speed
In diffraction, the wider the opening...
The smaller the angle by which the wave spreads out
In order to get a more circular wave pattern as a result of diffraction, the width of the opening must be:
closer to the width of the wavelength
What is interference?
When 2 or more waves travel through the same medium at the same time
What are nodes (in interference)?
areas of destructive interference
What are antinodes (in interference)?
areas of constructive interference
Define the Doppler Effect:
The apparent change in frequency due to the relative motion between the wave source and the observer
Are electromagnetic waves transverse or longitudinal?
Transverse
Can EM waves travel at different speeds?
No, they all travel at the speed of light.
What are standing waves?
When two identical waves travel through the same medium at the same time but in opposite directions
Within a standing wave, regions of constructive interference are called _______ and regions of destructive interference are called _______
Antinodes; nodes
Along the same string for standing waves, all resonances have (same/different) speeds
same
What is the Law of Refraction?
If a light ray enters a more optically dense medium, it bends toward the normal
Addition of color is based on:
light
Subtraction of color is based on:
pigments
In convex lens, parallel light rays bend toward:
the focus
If a light ray enters a LESS optically dense medium, it bends (away from/toward) the normal.
Away from
In terms of angles, when does total internal reflection occur?
When the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle
What about the medium must be changed in order for total internal reflection to occur?
The light ray must be moving from a MORE dense medium to LESS dense medium.
Define focal length:
The distance between the lens plane and the focal point
Concave lens; light (diverges/converges)?
Diverges
Convex lens; light (diverges/converges)?
Converges
If half of a lens is covered up, the image will be:
dimmer
What is a real image?
An image that can be projected onto a screen. Light rays actually converge at a single point.
What is a virtual image?
Image cannot be projected onto a screen. The illusion seen by the eyes tricks us into thinking that light is converging.
The smaller the index of refraction, the (faster/slower) light will travel through
faster
What is the Law of Charges?
Like charges repel. Unlike charges attract.
What is Conservation of Charge?
Total charge you start with = Total charge you end with (can't lose e-)
Electrical force is generally (greater/smaller) than gravitational force?
greater
Define electric field:
The region surrounding a charged particle where another charged particle experiences either a force of attraction or repulsion
Electric fields are (uniform/inverse square)
Inverse square (gets weaker with increasing distance)
Electric field lines move from ______ to ______
Positive to negative
Can electric field lines cross?
No
Electric field lines are always (perpendicular/parallel) to the surface of an object
Perpendicular
Charge is separated by (induction/conduction)
Induction
Charge is transferred by (induction/conduction)
Conduction
What kind of charge (negative/positive) always moves?
Negative only
Define electrical potential energy:
The potential energy associated with an object due to its position relative to a source of electric force
What are lines of equipotential?
Lines that connect points of the same potential; always perpendicular to electric field lines
What is the relationship (equation) among voltage, power, and current?
P = IV
power = current x voltage
The units of a watt can be:
J/s or C/s
When batteries are connected in series, the potential difference (increases/decreases/stays the same)
Increases
When batteries are connected in parallel, the potential difference (increases/decreases/stays the same)
Stays the same
Voltmeters are wired in (series/parallel)
Parallel
Ammeters are wired in (series/parallel)
Series
Define power:
The rate at which energy is provided or consumed
Voltmeters measure:
Potential difference across a resistance
Define magnetic field:
A region of space in which a MOVING charged particle experiences a magnetic force
Define Law of Poles:
Opposite poles attract. Like poles repel.
Magnetic field lines run ______ to ______ on the EXTERIOR of a magnet
North to south
Magnetic field lines run ______ to ______ on the INTERIOR of a magnet
South to north
Can magnetic field lines form a partial loop?
No. They only form complete, closed loops.
Can magnetic field lines cross?
No
The earth's magnetic south pole is near the geographic _____ pole.
North
What are magnetic domains?
Microscopic magnetic regions composed of a group of atoms whose magnetic fields are aligned in a common direction
In order for a magnetic field to exert a force on a charged particle, TWO conditions must be met:
1. The charge is moving
2. The charge cannot be moving parallel to the direction of magnetic field lines
What is the unit of magnetic field?
Tesla (T)
Tesla can be converted to other units. Give 3 examples.
1. N/(C*m/s)
2. N/(A*m)
3. (V*s)/(m^2)
Equation for force on a charged particle in a magnetic field:
F = qvB
force = charge x velocity x magnetic field strength
Equation for force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field:
F = BIl
force = magnetic field strength x current x length
Parallel currents going in the same direction makes 2 wires (attract/repel)
Attract
Currents going in opposite directions make 2 wires (attract/repel)
Repel
What does a motor do?
Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
What does a SPLIT-ring commutator do?
Maintains unidirectional current flow
What does a SLIP-ring commutator do?
Maintains bidirectional current flow
What does a generator do?
Converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
A step-up transformer (increases/decreases) voltage.
Increases
A step-down transformer (increases/decreases) voltage.
Decreases