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### 97 Cards in this Set

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 Definition of a wave: a periodic series of disturbances Name 2 major types of waves: Electromagnetic and mechanical Name 2 types of MECHANICAL waves: Transverse and longitudinal What is a transverse wave? The medium moves perpendicular to the direction of propagation What is a longitudinal wave? The medium moves parallel to the direction of propagation What is a pulse? a singular disturbance Definition of amplitude: the maximum displacement from equilibrium position Definition of wavelength: the straight-line distance between 2 adjacent, in-phase points on a wave What does frequency depend on? the oscillator What does wave speed depend on? the medium Put the 3 phases of matter in order from fastest wave speed to slowest wave speed. solid, liquid, gas ___________ waves do not need a medium. Electromagnetic What is the fundamental harmonic? the first harmonic The harmonics for one fixed end and one free end can only be ___ numbers odd The qualitative quality for frequency is: pitch The qualitative quality for amplitude is: energy (loudness) The qualitative quality for harmonics is: sound quality (timbre) What is resonance? One object causing another object to vibrate at its natural frequency. Is there a relationship between pulse speed and amplitude? No Is there a relationship between tension and pulse speed? Yes. More tension = faster pulse speed Is there a relationship between pulse speed and pulse width? No Is there a relationship between frequency and wavelength? Yes. Frequency and wavelength have an inverse relationship in the same medium. What is the Law of Reflection? The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection (when measured from the normal). The direction of propagation is ______ to the wavefront. perpendicular What is a reflection? A reflection is a wave that bounces off a barrier that doesn't absorb the wave's energy. What changes occur to a wave that bounces off a straight barrier? Only direction What changes occur to a wave that bounces off a curved barrier? Direction and shape Define refraction: The bending of a wavefront due to a change in speed (generally due to a change in medium) What changes occur to a wave that enters a shallower region? Wavelength, wave speed, direction Define diffraction: The spreading of a wave beyond a small opening, without a change in speed In diffraction, the wider the opening... The smaller the angle by which the wave spreads out In order to get a more circular wave pattern as a result of diffraction, the width of the opening must be: closer to the width of the wavelength What is interference? When 2 or more waves travel through the same medium at the same time What are nodes (in interference)? areas of destructive interference What are antinodes (in interference)? areas of constructive interference Define the Doppler Effect: The apparent change in frequency due to the relative motion between the wave source and the observer Are electromagnetic waves transverse or longitudinal? Transverse Can EM waves travel at different speeds? No, they all travel at the speed of light. What are standing waves? When two identical waves travel through the same medium at the same time but in opposite directions Within a standing wave, regions of constructive interference are called _______ and regions of destructive interference are called _______ Antinodes; nodes Along the same string for standing waves, all resonances have (same/different) speeds same What is the Law of Refraction? If a light ray enters a more optically dense medium, it bends toward the normal Addition of color is based on: light Subtraction of color is based on: pigments In convex lens, parallel light rays bend toward: the focus If a light ray enters a LESS optically dense medium, it bends (away from/toward) the normal. Away from In terms of angles, when does total internal reflection occur? When the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle What about the medium must be changed in order for total internal reflection to occur? The light ray must be moving from a MORE dense medium to LESS dense medium. Define focal length: The distance between the lens plane and the focal point Concave lens; light (diverges/converges)? Diverges Convex lens; light (diverges/converges)? Converges If half of a lens is covered up, the image will be: dimmer What is a real image? An image that can be projected onto a screen. Light rays actually converge at a single point. What is a virtual image? Image cannot be projected onto a screen. The illusion seen by the eyes tricks us into thinking that light is converging. The smaller the index of refraction, the (faster/slower) light will travel through faster What is the Law of Charges? Like charges repel. Unlike charges attract. What is Conservation of Charge? Total charge you start with = Total charge you end with (can't lose e-) Electrical force is generally (greater/smaller) than gravitational force? greater Define electric field: The region surrounding a charged particle where another charged particle experiences either a force of attraction or repulsion Electric fields are (uniform/inverse square) Inverse square (gets weaker with increasing distance) Electric field lines move from ______ to ______ Positive to negative Can electric field lines cross? No Electric field lines are always (perpendicular/parallel) to the surface of an object Perpendicular Charge is separated by (induction/conduction) Induction Charge is transferred by (induction/conduction) Conduction What kind of charge (negative/positive) always moves? Negative only Define electrical potential energy: The potential energy associated with an object due to its position relative to a source of electric force What are lines of equipotential? Lines that connect points of the same potential; always perpendicular to electric field lines What is the relationship (equation) among voltage, power, and current? P = IV power = current x voltage The units of a watt can be: J/s or C/s When batteries are connected in series, the potential difference (increases/decreases/stays the same) Increases When batteries are connected in parallel, the potential difference (increases/decreases/stays the same) Stays the same Voltmeters are wired in (series/parallel) Parallel Ammeters are wired in (series/parallel) Series Define power: The rate at which energy is provided or consumed Voltmeters measure: Potential difference across a resistance Define magnetic field: A region of space in which a MOVING charged particle experiences a magnetic force Define Law of Poles: Opposite poles attract. Like poles repel. Magnetic field lines run ______ to ______ on the EXTERIOR of a magnet North to south Magnetic field lines run ______ to ______ on the INTERIOR of a magnet South to north Can magnetic field lines form a partial loop? No. They only form complete, closed loops. Can magnetic field lines cross? No The earth's magnetic south pole is near the geographic _____ pole. North What are magnetic domains? Microscopic magnetic regions composed of a group of atoms whose magnetic fields are aligned in a common direction In order for a magnetic field to exert a force on a charged particle, TWO conditions must be met: 1. The charge is moving 2. The charge cannot be moving parallel to the direction of magnetic field lines What is the unit of magnetic field? Tesla (T) Tesla can be converted to other units. Give 3 examples. 1. N/(C*m/s) 2. N/(A*m) 3. (V*s)/(m^2) Equation for force on a charged particle in a magnetic field: F = qvB force = charge x velocity x magnetic field strength Equation for force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field: F = BIl force = magnetic field strength x current x length Parallel currents going in the same direction makes 2 wires (attract/repel) Attract Currents going in opposite directions make 2 wires (attract/repel) Repel What does a motor do? Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy What does a SPLIT-ring commutator do? Maintains unidirectional current flow What does a SLIP-ring commutator do? Maintains bidirectional current flow What does a generator do? Converts mechanical energy into electrical energy A step-up transformer (increases/decreases) voltage. Increases A step-down transformer (increases/decreases) voltage. Decreases