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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neuron cell bodies contain _____, _____, _____, ______, and _____.
lysozymes, nissl bodies, neurotubules, neurofibrils, synaptic vessicles
Autonomic preganglionic nerves are dervived from ____.
neural tube
Autonomic postganglionic nerves are derived from ____.
neural crest
Motor nerves are derived from _____.
neural tube
Sensory nerves are dervived from _____.
neural crest
Ganglia are derived from ____.
neural crest cells
Schwann cells and satellite cells are derived from ____.
neural crest cells
The hindbrain is composed of the ____,___, and ____.
pons, medulla, cerebellum
The brainstem is composed of the _____,____,_____, and ___.
pons, medulla, cerebellum (hindbrain), midbrain
The forbrain is composed of the ____ and ____.
diencephalon, telencephalon
The diencephalon is part of the ____ and is composed of the ____, ____, ____, ____ and _____.
forebrain; epithalamus, subthalamus, thalamus, retina & optic nerve, hypothalamus
The telencephalon is part of the ____, and is composed of the ____, ____, and ____.
forebrain; basal ganglia, limbic system, cerebral hemispheres
The CNS is derived from the ___.
neural tube
Astrocytes are derived from the ____.
neural tube
Oligodendrocytes are derived from the ____.
neural tube
The adrenal medulla is derived from the ___.
neural crest
Melanocytes are derived from the ____.
neural crest
Schwann cells are derived from the ___.
neural crest
The meninges is derived from the ____.
neural crest
Pharyngeal arch cartilage, odontoblasts, the endocardial cushion are derived from ____.
neural crest
Parafollicular cells and the aorticopulmonary septum is derived from ___.
neural crest
The ____ plate induced by ____ forms sensory neurons.
alar, BMPs
The ____ plate induced by ___ forms motor neurons and preganglionic autonomic neurons.
basal, SHH
The ____ divides the neural tube into the _____ and ____ plate.
sulcus limitants, basal, alar
In the 4th week, the 3 stage division of the brain is the _____, _____, and _____, which form the _____,_____ and ____.
rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, prosencephalo; hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
During the 5th week of development the rhombencephelon divides into the ______ and _____, and the prosencephalon divides into the ____ and _____.
myelencephalon, metencephalon; diencephalon, telencephalon
The adult derivitives of the metencephelon are the ____ and ____.
pons, cerebellum
The adult derivitive of the myelencephalon is the ____.
The lateral ventricle is derived from the _____.
The third ventricle is derived from the _____.
The cerebral aqueduct is a derivative of the ______.
The fourth ventricle is a derivative of the _____ and ____.
metencephalon, mylencephalon
Sensory and autonomic ganglia are derived from ____.
neural crest cells
_____ is characterized by failure of fusion of the rostral neural folds, missing part of the brain, scalp, or cranial vault, and is incompatible with life.
____ is characterized by failure of closer of portion of anterior neuropore, protrusion of meninges, brain or CSF, and mental retardation and paresis.
____ is associated with high maternal blood alpha fetoprotein.
_____ is a defect in the vertebral arches and is asymptomatic.
spina bifida occulta
_____ occurs when the meninges project through the vertebral defect.
spina bifida cystica (meningocele) (high AFP)
____ occurs when the meninges and spinal cord project through the vertebral defect.
Spina bifida with meningomyelocele (high AFP)
_____ occurs when an open neural tube lies on the surface of the back.
spina bifida with myeloschisis (high AFP)
Dandy-walker syndrome is a disorder due to abnormal development of the ____ neural tube, and is characterized by absence of the ___ ventricular CSF apertures, and associated with fluid in posterior fossa, dilated 4th ventricle, hydrocephalus.
rostral, 4th
CIPA is caused by a mutation in the gene contolling _____ receptor which codes for ______ which facilitates the differentiation of neural crest cells into nociceptive and autonomic cells.
tyrosine kinase A, Nerve Growth Factor
____ is a disorder resulting from defect in neural ____ differentiation of first order afferent systems for pain and temperature as well as post ganglionic autonomic control of sweating.
Dandy Walker Syndrome, crest
The ____ is bi-lobed structure with midline portion.
The cerebellum is located at the back of the head below the ______.
ocipital lobe
_____ receives mainly proprioceptive inforation from the periphery and integrates with other structures to coordinate _____, _____, ____, _____, ____, _____ and equilibrim.
gait, movement, muscle tone, posture, balance
____ is the most rostral area of the brain stem.
The midbrain is connected rostrally to the _____.
The dorsal region of the midbrain is called the ____, and contains nuclei connected with ____ and ____.
tectum, vision and hearing
The ventral region of the midbrain is called the ______, and contains the ____ and ____, concerned with ____.
tagmentum, red nucleus, substantia nuclei, motor control
The ____ peduncle attaches to the midbrain.
superior cerebellar
Corticofugal fibers pass through the midbrain in the ____.
cerebral peducles
____ is the bulbous area between the midbrain rostrally and medulla caudally.
The ______ pons contains intrinsic nuclei, pontine nuclei, concerned with motor coordination between the _____ and _____.
basal (ventral area), cerebral cortex, cerebellum
The middle cerebellar peduncle attach the cerebellum to the _____.
The medulla is the cylindrical area of the ____, immediately ____ to the pons and _____ to the cervical spinal cord. (location)
brain stem, caudal, rostral
Corticofugal fibers decussate at the lower ____ level.
The dorsal area of the the pons is the ____ and the ventral area is the ____.
tegmentum, basal pontine
The inferior olivary nucleus contained in the _____ recieves fibers from the spinal cord and sends them to the _____ via the ____ peducles.
medulla, cerebellum, inferior olivary nucleus
The inferior peduncle attaces the cerebellum to the ____.
The ____ forms the central core of the cerebrum.
The ____ is the largest part of the diencephalon, and is an important sensory relay station in pathway to cerebral cortex, limbic system, cerebellum and basal ganglia.
The ____ is the dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon that contains the ______, _____, and _____.
epithalmus; pineal gland (body), habenula, the stria medullaris
The _____ of the _____ secretes melatonin.
pineal body, epithalamus
The ____ contains important neurosecretory and autonomic nuclei.
The ____ forms the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functions to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities.
The _____ develops efferent connections to the striatum in the telencephalon, to the dorsal thalamus in the diencephalon, and to the red nucleus and substantia nigra in the mesencephalon. It has ____ connections with the substantia nigra and striatum.
subthalamus, afferent
The retina and optic nerve are outgrowths of the ____.
The telencephelon is composed of the following subregions, ____, ____ and _____.
cerebral cortex, limbic system, basal gangli
The cerebral cortex is divided by ____ into the 4 lobes, _____, _____, _____ and ____.
sulci, fronal, parietal, temporal, occipital
The cerberal cortex is folded in ridges called ___, that are seperated by grooves called _____.
gyri, sulci
The ____ and _____ cortex serve integrated higher mental activities.
association, higher order association
The caudate nucleus and Putamen are part of the ____.
striatum (basal ganglia)
The _____ includes the structures in the human brain involved in emotion, motivation, and emotional association with memory.
limbic system
The ___ includes deeper structures such as the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, parahipocampral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, septum, and fornix
limbic areas