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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which two cranial nerves do not originate within the brainstem?
Cranial I - olfactory
Cranial II - optic
Which nerve exits on the dorsal aspect of the brainstem caudal to the inferior colliculi?
Cranial IV - trochlear
Name the cranial nerves and their associated nuclei.
Cranial III
- oculomotor nucleus
- edinger-westphal nucleus

Cranial IV
- trochlear nucleus

Cranial V
- motor nucleus of V
- principal sensory nucleus of V
- descending nucleus of V
- mesencephalic nucleus

Cranial VI
- abducens nucleus

Cranial VII
- facial nucleus
- superior salivatory nucleus
- nucleus solitarius

Cranial VIII
- vestibular nucleus
- cochlear nucleus

Cranial IX
- nucleus ambiguus
- nucleus solitarius
- inferior salivatory nucleus

Cranial X
- dorsal motor of vagus
- nucleus solitarius
- nucleus ambiguus

Cranial XI
- accessory nucleus

Cranial XII
- hypoglossal nucleus
Where is the peri-aqueductal gray located?

Why is it useful?
Located in midbrain

It helps the student to distinguish the brainsteam and cranial nerves at that level
Which nucleus is the pupillary light reflex seen?

Which cranial nerve?
Oculomotor and edinger-westphal nuclei

Cranial III
Paralysis of superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, and inferior oblique muscles

Full functioning superior oblique and lateral rectus muscles

What condition is this?
Oculomotor nerve palsy

- Known by the down n' out symptoms

- The affected eye will be looking downward, because the superior oblique (innervated by CN IV), is unantagonized by the paralyzed superior rectus and inferior oblique and looking outwards, because the lateral rectus (innervated by CN VI) is unantagonized by the paralyzed medial rectus.
The oculomotor nerves innervates which muscles?

What is the function of those muscles?
Superior rectus - elevates, adducts, and medially rotates

Inferior rectus - depresses, adducts, and laterally rotates

Medial rectus - adducts

Inferior oblique - elevates, abducts, and laterally rotates

Levator palpebrae superioris - elevates superior eyelid
What muscle is innervated by the trochlear nerve?
Superior oblique muscle
- Superior oblique dysfunction
- Damage produced vertical
diplopia and hyper tropia
- Most common injured cranial
nerve in head trauma

What is the condition called?
Trochlear nerve palsy
What muscle is innervated by the trochlear nerve?
Lateral rectus muscle
- Lateral rectus dysfunction
- Damage produces horizontal diplopia and esotropia
- Affected eye does not abduct normally
- Commonly injured by increased intracranial pressure

What is the condition?
Abducens nerve palsy
Which cranial nerve is the major sensory nerve of the face?
Trigeminal nerve (V)
What are the three division of the trigeminal nerve and what are their designations (e.g. 1, 2, and 3)?
Opthalmic division (1)

Maxillary division (2)

Mandibular division (3)
What is the condition described below and how is it treated?

- causes sharp, sudden pain in the face
- maxillary division (v2) most frequent, followed by v3 and v1
- pain triggered by touching area of skin
Trigeminal neuralgia

Treatment: move blood vessel away from nerve OR section sensory root of CN V
What is the condition described below?

- paralysis of the facial muscles on the affected side
Facial nerve injury - Bell's Palsy
What is the function of Cranial VIII?
Hearing and equilibirum
What is the function of Cranila IX?

What portion of tongue does it innervate?
Sends sensory information from the larynx, pharynx, and palate to the brain.

Posterior 1/3 of the tongue
Most cranial nerves will deviate to the the ipsilateral side, but this is the only nerve that will deviate to the contralateral side.
Vagus (X)
Lesions of the nucleus ambiguus of the vagus nerve will deviate to the contralateral side.

Which condition is this most commonly seen with?
Uvula

It will deviate to the contralateral side of a nucleus ambiguus lesion
Which cranial nerves are associated with taste?
Cranial VII, IX, and X
The accessory cranial nerve have two different root. Name them and the muscles they innervate.
Cranial root: larynx, pharynx, and palate

Spinal root: sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
The hypoglossal nerve is responsible for what function?
It contains motor fibers to the muscles of the tongue
Lesions of the hypoglossal nerve will effectively deviate the tongue _________ side of the lesion

Why?
Ipsilateral

Because of the unpaired action of the genioglossus muscle in the contralateral side
What are the branches of the internal carotid system?
Ophthalmic artery
Anterior choroidal artery
Posterior communicating artery
Middle cerebral artery
Anterior cerebral artery
The anterior choroidal artery supplies which structures?
Optic tract
Choroid plexus (some)
Cerebral peduncle (some)
Internal capsule (parts)
Thalamus
Hippocampus
What does the posterior communicating artery do?
It joins the internal carotid with the posterior cerebral artery
What structures of the brain does the anterior cerebral artery supply?
Medial aspect of the frontal and parietal lobes
- Supplies somatosensory and motor gyri
What effect will an occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery have on the brain?
It will cause motor and sensory deficits for the lower limb -- look at the homunculus for the reason why!
Where does the medial cerebral artery travel from the center of the brain?
Into the lateral sulcus of the parietal lobe
What structures does the medial cerebral artery supply?
It supplies the insula & most of the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere
What will an occlusion of the medial cerebral artery cause?

What if it occurs in the left hemisphere?
Occlusion of an middle cerebral artery causes restricted contralateral motor and somatosensory deficits

If the left hemisphere is affected, then LANGUAGE deficits will appear