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22 Cards in this Set

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Board of Education of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens (1990)
(First Amendment establishment clause) Formation of Christian religions group at school was denied by an Omaha high school principal; Court ordered that school to permit the club because a high school does not have to permit any extracurricular activities but when it does, the school is bound by the equal access act of 1984.
Wallace v. Jaffree (1985)
(First Amendmentm, Establishment Clause)Alabama Law authorized one-minute period of silence for voluntary prayer; a parent, challenged the constitutionality of this by claiming it violated the Establishment Clause; the Court agreed with him and struck down the Alabama law, determining that the States endorsement of prayer is not consistent with the established pricniple that government must pursue a course of complete neutrality toward religion
Republican Party of Minnesota v. White (2002)
A decision of the Supreme Court of the United States regarding the First Amendment rights of candidates for judicial office. Minnesota, like most states, had a code of judicial ethics that constrained candidates seeking election as a judge from discussing issues that could come before them if elected—referred to as an "announce clause." In a 5–4 opinion, the court ruled that Minnesota's requirement of judges not to discuss political issues was unconstitutional
Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government PAC (2000)
Shrink Missouri Government, a political action committee, and Zev David Fredman, a candidate for State office, sued Missouri's Attorney General, Jeremiah J. Nixon, challenging the constitutionality of a Missouri law that limited contributions to candidates for political office. In a 6-3 decision, the Supreme Court upheld Missouri's limits on contributions to candidates for State office.
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society v. Village of Stratton (2001)
The Village of Stratton promulgated an ordinance that prohibits canvassers from entering private residential property to promote any cause without first obtaining a permit from the mayor's office. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc., a congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses that publish and distribute religious materials, brought an action for injunctive relief, alleging that the ordinance violates their First Amendment rights to the free exercise of religion, free speech, and freedom of the press. Court held that the ordinance's provisions making it a misdemeanor to engage in door-to-door advocacy without first registering with the mayor and receiving a permit violate the First Amendment as it applies to religious proselytizing, anonymous political speech, and the distribution of handbills. The Court reasoned that the village's interest in preventing fraud could not support the ordinance's application to the religious organizations, to political campaigns, or to enlisting support for unpopular causes
Gibbons v. Odgen (1824)
was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate navigation was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the Constitution
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
The state of Maryland attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. Though the law, by its language, was generally applicable, the U.S. Bank was the only out-of-state bank then existing in Maryland, and the law is generally recognized as specifically targeting the U.S. Bank. The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause in the Constitution,
This fundamental case established the following two principles:
1. That the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government, and
2. That state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
Watkins v. United States (1957)
John Watkins was convicted for refusing to answer questions of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) about people he believed were no longer members of the Communist Party. He asked the Supreme Court to review his conviction after it was affirmed by the Court of Appeals. the Supreme Court held that the congressional subcommittee had not given Watkins a fair opportunity to determine whether he could lawfully refuse to answer questions, and that his conviction for “contempt of Congress” was therefore invalid under the Fifth Amendment's Due Process Clause
Nixon v. Fitzgerald (1982)
The Supreme Court ruled that the President is entitled to absolute immunity from liability for damages based on his official acts.
United States v. Nixon (1974)
It was a unanimous 8-0 ruling involving President Richard Nixon and important to the late stages of the Watergate scandal. It is considered a crucial precedent limiting the power of any U.S. president and that executive privilege does not apply to "demonstrably relevant" evidence in criminal cases.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
The case resulted from a petition to the Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia by President John Adams shortly before leaving office, but whose commission was not delivered as required by John Marshall, Adams's Secretary of State. When Thomas Jefferson assumed office, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to withhold Marbury's and several other men's commissions. Marbury and three others petitioned the Court to force Madison to deliver the commission to Marbury. The case was ultimately unsuccessful for Marbury, who never became a Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia.
Dennis v. United States (1951)
In 1948, the leaders of the Communist Part of America were arrested and charged with violating provisions of the Smith Act. The Act made it unlawful to knowingly conspire to teach and advocate the overthrow or destruction of the United States government uphold the conviction of Dennis and 10 other members of the CPUSA. Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson announced the decision in this case. He argued that protecting the national security of the United States justified use of the Smith Act to limit the free speech of individuals advocating forcible overthrow of the national government
Schenck v. United States (1919)
Decision concerning the question of whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I. The defendant, Charles Schenck, a Socialist, circulated a flyer to recently drafted men. As a result of the 9-0 decision, Charles Schenck spent six months in prison. The requirement to establish "clear and present danger"
Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969)
High school students protested the Vietnam War by wearing black armbands in school. School officials had adopted a policy banning the wearing of armbands two days before the students' action. When the students wore the armbands to school they were sent home and suspended until they returned without them. The students claimed that their First Amendment rights were violated by the schools' action. Finding that the actions of the Tinkers in wearing armbands did not cause disruption held that their activity represented constitutionally protected symbolic speech.
Ex parte Milligan (1866)
Lambdin P. Milligan and four others were accused of planning to steal Union weapons and invade Union prisoner-of-war camps and were sentenced to hang by a military court in 1864. However, their execution was not set until May 1865, so they were able to argue the case after the Civil War ended. Milligan also attempted to take over the state governments of Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan. Court ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians in areas where civil courts were open, even during times of war.
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Reaffirmed the Supreme Court's acceptance of the use of the death penalty in the United States.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
The Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police
New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985)
Was a case appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1984, involving the search of a high school student for contraband after she was caught smoking. She was charged as a juvenile for the drugs and paraphernalia found in the search. She fought the search, claiming it violated her Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable searches. The U.S. Supreme Court, in a 6-3 ruling, held that the search was reasonable under the Fourth Amendment.
Bob Jones University v. United States (1983)
a decision by the United States Supreme Court that held that the IRS could, without the approval of the United States Congress, revoke the tax exempt status of organizations that are contrary to established public policy.
Grutter v. Bollinger
a case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Michigan Law School does not prohibit the law school's narrowly tailored use of race in admissions decisions to further a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body."
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
was a United States Supreme Court case regarding the University of Michigan undergraduate affirmative action admissions policy. In a 6–3 decision announced on June 23, 2003, the Supreme Court ruled the university's point system was too mechanistic and therefore unconstitutional.
Johnson v. Santa Clara Transportation Agency (1987)
In 1978 the Transportation Agency of Santa Clara County, California, created an affirmative action plan to bring about fair representation in its work force of women, minorities, and disabled people. The Supreme Court upheld the Santa Clara Transportation Agency's affirmative action plan. legal under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act to remedy imbalances of female and male workers in a skilled job category.