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### 41 Cards in this Set

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 Crust the outer layer of the Earth Core the central part of the Earth Mantle the layer of the earth between the crust and the core Plates Rigid slabs that make up the Earth's crust Tectonic forces or conditions within the earth that cause movements of the crust such as earthquakes, folds and faults Constructive Margin A boundary between two plates that are moving apart and where new crust is being formed. (Iceland) Destructive Margin A boundary between two plates that are moving together and where one, consisting of oceanic crust, is forced downwards and destroyed. (Aleutian Islands) Subduction(Zone) Occurs at a destructive plate margin where oceanic crust, moving towards continental crust, is forced downwards into the mantle and destroyed. Collision(Zone) An area where two continental plates collide. Forming fold mountains such as the himalayas Conservative Margin A boundary between two plates that are sliding past each other and where crust is being neither formed nor destroyed. (San Andreas Fault) Focus he precise point within the Earth's crust or mantle where rocks begin to rupture or move in an earthquake. Epicenter The point on the earth's surface directly above the focus. Richter Scale The system used to measure the strength of an earthquake. Mercalli Scale A measure of earthquake intensity determined from the effects on people and buildings, ranges from I (low) to XII (nearly total destruction). Cyclone An area of low pressure around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Hurricane a tropical cyclone with winds exceeding 66 knots, generally accompanied by rain, thunder, and lightning. Typhoon A hurricane in the north Pacific west of the International Date Line. Storm-surge An abnormal rise of the sea along a shore as a result, primarily, of the high winds in a land falling storm Flooding n overflowing of water, especially over land not usually submerged. Drainage Basin area of the earth's surface from which surface drainage all flows to a single outlet stream Hydrological Cycle The movement of water from the sea through the air to the land and back to the sea. System no water added or lost to the hydrological cycle is called a closed system. Watershed The specific land area that drains water into a river system or other body of water. Source Where the river starts Confluence a place where things merge or flow together (especially rivers) Mouth The place where a stream enters another, larger stream. Tributary a smaller river or stream that flows into a larger river or stream. Usually, a number of smaller tributaries merge to form a river. Channel a passage for water (or other fluids) to flow through Atmosphere the weather or climate at some place Ice Core Obtained by drilling into ice sheet, for example in Greenland or Antarctica, an ice core provides information which can be used to reconstruct past climates and climate change. Ice cores are an example of a non–instrumental record. Ice Age A time of widespread glaciation Carbon Dioxide A gas present in the atmosphere to the extent of more than 0.03% by volume and playing an important role in the greenhouse effect. Methane A gas given off by animal waste. It can be used as fuel, but the process to turn it into fuel is very expensive, so this is not done very often. Methane is a greenhouse gas, which means that it contributes to global warming. Chlorofluorocarbons These chemicals and some related chemicals have been used in great quantities in industry, for refrigeration and air conditioning, and in consumer products. CFCs and their relatives, when released into the air, rise into the stratosphere, a layer of the atmosphere high above the Earth. ... Greenhouse-effect The warming of the atmosphere by the trapping of longwave radiation being radiated to space. The gases most responsible for this effect are water vapor and carbon dioxide. China Capital: Beijing(north-east) Location: Eastern Asia Japan Capital: Tokyo(south-east) Location: Eastern Asia North Korea Capital: Pyongyang (west) Location: Eastern Asia, norther half of the Korean peninsula South Korea Capital: Seoul(north-west) Location: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean peninsula Philippines Capital: Manila (northern island, south-west) Location: southeastern Asia, east of vietnam Thailand Capital: Bangkok (south Location: southeastern part