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20 Cards in this Set

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Akhenaton was an Egyptian Pharaohdurng the New Kingdom, formerly Amenhotep IV. He lived in the1300s B.C. He was married to Nefertiti He changed Egypt from polytheism to monotheism. He declared that Egyptian should only worship Aton, the sun-disk god. He claimed to be a god himself and changed his name to Akhenaton, meaning “Spirit of Aton.” He moved the capital away from Thebes to El Amarna, a city dedicated to Aton. The people rejected the new reforms. The priests didn’t like the fact that they lost power, and the army didn’t like the loss of territory. When he died, his som became pharaoh and changed everything back to the old ways.
Siddartha Guatama
Siddartha Guatama was the founder of Buddhism. He lived in the 500s B.C. He was Kshatriya prince in India. There was a prophesy that if he stayed at home he would be a great king and if he left home he would be a great religious leader, so his father isolated him at home. He left his home four times. The first time, he saw an old man. The second time, he saw a sick man. The third time he saw a corpse going to the crematory. The fourth time, he saw a holy wan. The holy man was the only one who looked at peace so he believed that religion was the only way to escape suffering. He searched for enlightenment, but only found it when he sat under a fig tree and meditated. He preached the Four Noble Truths. They were that all people suffer through sorrow, that suffering is caused by desirers, that suffering is ended by limiting one’s desires, and that one can eliminate one’s dossiers by following the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold path is to know the truth, to resist evil, to say nothing to hurt others, to respect life, to free one’s mind from evil, to control one’s mind, to work for the good of others, and to meditate. His followers called him Buddha, meaning “enlightened one.” He believed in Nirvana: a state of freedom from the cycle of rebirth gained by following the Eightfold Path. He rejected the Varnas, Hindu deities and Hindu rituals and sacrifices. After his death, his followers spread Buddhism and it became one of the world’s great religions.
Nero was the fourth Julio-Claudian Emperor of Rome. He was Claudius’ stepson and he was cruel & insane. He lived in the A.D. 1st century. He was 16 when came to power. He bankrupted Rome to pay for his pleasures. He killed his wife, mother and many senators because he thought they were plotting against him. He began the persecution of Christens. He was blamed for the Great Fire of Rome. He was sentenced to death by the Senate, but he committed suicide. After he died, there was a period of civil war and then the Flavian emperors came to power.
David was a king of the Israelites during the 1,000s B.C. He defeated the Philistine Goliath, which made him popular. He became King after Saul became unpopular. He made Jerusalem the capital. He made a central government and enlarged the borders. There was economic prosperity. He was succeed by his son Solomon.
Darius I
Darius I was a Persian King during the 500s – 400s B.C. He came to power in a military coup, helped by an elite military group, the Ten-Thousand Immortals. He divided the empire into provinces, with governors called Satraps. He took military officials and tax inspectors from conquered peoples. Had “eyes and ears” in the provinces. He built the Royal Road and the Persian capital Persepolis. He allowed conquered people to keep their laws, languages, and religion. He dealt with rebellion with extreme measures. He attacked invaded the Greeks and was defeated at the battle of Marathon. He was succeeded by his son, Xerxes.
Tiberius Gracchus
Tiberius Gracchus was a reformist in the Roman Repblic during the 100s B.C. He gave up his patrician birthright and became Tribune. He proposed limiting the size of the Latifundia, distributing land to the poor, and low cost brain for the poor. The Senate disagreed with him and thought he was a threat, so they killed him in a planned street fight. Brother Gaius also became a tribune, tried to make reforms, and was killed in the same way. Their deaths were the first of Rome’s political assassinations. They showed that Rome would not reform peacefully.
Nebuchadnezzar was a Chaldan King during the 600s – 500s B.C. He was king during the height of power of the Chaldans. He extended the boundaries, conquered Jerusalem, and enslaved and exiled the kingdom of Judah in Babylon. He rebuilt Babylon and built the wall around it. He also built the Hanging Guardians fro his wife. He wanted them to be seen from anywhere in Babylon and they became one of the seven ancient wonders of the world.
Socrates was a philosopher and teacher during the Golden age of Athens. He lived in the 400s B.C. He was originally a sculptor. He believed in an absolute truth. He wanted people to think for themselves, so he developed the Socratic Method. He would ask a question and then argue against the answer he got with logic, forcing his students to clarify and defend their beliefs. He was always poor because he wouldn’t accept money for his teaching, and he scorned the sophists who did. He questioned democracy. He was thought of as a threat so he was brought to trial for impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens. He argued that he had none nothing wrong but was convicted anyway. He could have asked to be exiled, but instead he said his punishment should be free meals for life, so he was sentenced to death. His students tried to get him to escape but he had lived all his life by the rules of Athens and wanted to die by them. He died by drinking hemlock juice. We know about his teachings from his student Plato who wrote down his conversations from memory in a book called Dialogues.
Plato was Socrates’ student, a Philosopher and teacher during the Golden age of Athens in the 300s B.C. He was born wealthy. He was Socrates’ student and when Socrates died, he wrote down Socrates’ conversations from memory in a book called Dialogues. He opened a school called the Academy. He wrote The Republic, which was the first book on political science. He disliked democracy and wanted only the smartest and most intelligent in government. He distrusted lower classes. He said loyalty to the state is more important than the individual, and that too much freedom was dangerous.
Aristotle was Plato’s student, a Philosopher and teacher during the Golden age of Athens in the 300s B.C. He started the school the Lyceum. He used logic. He wrote Physics, which said the world’s most dominant feature is change, and outlined the scientific method. He gained knowledge from the senses, and observed facts and classified them by their differences He also wrote Politics, which said power should be in the middle class because they can command and obey and the ideal government is monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy combined. He developed the “Golden Mean” which was to live moderately and avoid extreme actions. His most famous student was Alexander the Great. He also said the Earth is the center of the universe.
Pericles was an Athenian General during the 400s B.C. He rebuilt Athens from the Persian Wars. He strengthened Democracy. He created the Athenian Empire. He gave the Funeral Oration of Pericles. He created paid public offices. He formed the Delian League, an alliance of city-states to protect from the Persian treat. He took money from the Delian League treasury and built the Parthenon. He moved the treasury and all criminal trials to Athens. The Peloponnesian league was created because of him. He died in the plague during the Peloponnesian wars.
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar was a political figure at the end of the Roman Republican period. He was born in the 100s B.C. He was born an Aristocrat. He became part of the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus. He was elected Consul. He went on many military campaigns in Gaul and Britain, which made him a hero with the lower classes. The Triumvirate fell apart. The senate ordered him to come back and disband his army. He refused and crossed the Rubicon River, committing treason. He took control and became dictator for life. He supported Cleopatra’s claim to the throne and became her lover. He granted citizenship in the provinces, gave free grain to the poor but made the number of people eligible for it less, founded colonies, and created public works projects. Many thought he was a good leader but some thought he wanted to make himself king. Anyone trying to become king could be killed without trial. Therefore, he was stabbed to death by a group of Senators lead by Brutus and Cassius on the Ides of March, March 14, 44 B.C.
Augustus Caesar
Augustus Caesar was the 1st emperor of Rome. He lived in the 20s B.C.- A.D. 10s He was part of the Second Triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus. That fell apart and Octavion defeated Antony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium. He was originally named Octavion, but when he became Emperor and gave himself the title Augustus, meaning “exalted one.” He rebuilt Rome. He instituted a civil service. He built roads and public buildings throughout the empire. He took a census. He started the Praetorian Guard. He instituted low cost grain. He extended citizenship to the provinces. He reduced the number of legions. He standardized currency. He became ponifex maximus.
Hannibal was a brilliant Carthaginian general, during the 200s B.C. His father, who fought in the first Punic War, made him swear to hate and defeat Rome. He attacked the Roman Empire in the Second Punic War by invading Italy through the Alps. He defeated the Roman legions at the battle of Cannae, but was defeated by the Roman general Scipio at the battle of Zama when Scipio attacked Carthage to draw Hannibal back.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great was the son of Philip II and Olympia. He was a Macedonian King and Empire builder, during the 300s B.C. He became king of Macedonia when his father died. He took his army into Persia and defeated them at the battles of Granicus River and Issus. He captured Phoenicia and invaded Egypt where he built the new city of Alexandria. He defeated the Persians again at the battle of Guagamela and then captured the key city-states of Babylon, Persepolis, and Susa. He finally became king of Persia when its king, Darius, was killed by his own men. He then invaded India, but his troops refused to go farther. He died of a fever back in Babylon.
Cleopatra was an Egyptian Queen of the Ptolemaic dynasty. She lived in the 60s – 30s B.C. She was the only Ptolemaic ruler that bothered to learn Egyptian. She ruled jointly with her ten-year-old brother when their father died. She struggled with her brother for the throne. Her brother tried to gain Julius Caesar’s support by murdering his rival Pompey but Caesar supported Cleopatra’s claim from Julius Caesar and they became lovers and had a son. When Caesar died, she became lovers with Marc Antony. Octavion became Antony’s enemies and he defeated Antony and Cleopatra’s combined forces at eh battle of Actium. Cleopatra begged Octavion to let her retire have her son become king of Egypt, but he refused to she killed herself.
Asoka was a Mauryan king during the 200s B.C. At first, he conquered mercilessly but when he looked at a battlefield, he was horrified and decided to turn away from war and become a man of peace. He converted to Buddhism and spread that religion during his rule. He made the Rock Edicts, stone pillars with his laws on them, and posted them throughout the empire. They were fair and stressed non-violence. He allowed practice of any religion. He opened free hospitals and veterinary clinics. He built roads with rest stops and shade trees along them.
Hatshepsut was an Egyptian queen in the 1400s B.C. She was the daughter of Thutmose I and wife and sister of Thutmose II. She ruled at first with her husband, but then as regent to her stepson, Thutmose III, because he was too young. Later, she crowned herself Pharaoh. During her reign, she built lots of temples and tombs including her temple at Deir al-Bahri. She also expanded trade. Thutmose III claimed the throne at her death.
Jesus was the founder of Christianity. He was a Jew from the town of Nazareth. He traveled through Galilee and Judea. He proclaimed that God’s rule was close at hand, that one should turn away from one’s sins and do kindness, and that God was loving and forgiving to all who repented. His disciples thought he was the messiah. Other Jews did not. The Romans thought he was stirring up trouble. Roman governor Pontius Pilate arrested him and had him crucified in A.D. 33. After his death, his disciples claimed that he had risen from the dead and was the son of God.
Constantine was the emperor of Rome in the A.D. 300s. He came to power during the civil war that erupted when Diocletian died. He made the Edict of Milan, which said that all religious groups were free to worship in the empire. He built churches throughout the empire and converted to Christianity on his deathbed. He declared that most jobs were hereditary. He moved the capital of the Empire from Rome to the Greek town of Byzantium, which was later named Constantinople. When he died there was another civil war and then Theodosius came to power.