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29 Cards in this Set

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How is semen formed?
1. Sperm form in testes; stored in epididymis, adds 5% fluid
2. Seminal vesicles add 60% of fluid, including fructose.
3. Prostate adds 30% fluid, acidic.
4. Bulbourethral glands 5%
What does the prostate fluid added to semen contain?
Prostate fluid is acidic;
-ACID PHOSPHATASE***
-Citric acid
-Zinc
-Proteolytic enzymes
What do the bulbourethral contributions to semen do?
-The fluid added makes semen thick and mucousy.
What hormones stimulate semen production/formation?
1. GnRH
2. FSH
3. LH
What does LH do?
Stimulates the Leydig cells to produce testosterone
What does FSH do?
Stimulates sperm formation and maturation.
What testing post-vasectomy confirms success?
2 consecutive sperm-free ejaculations.
What is varicocele?
a vericose vein in the scrotum.
What are the criteria for semen collection?
-Sexual abstinence at least 3 days but not more than 5.
-Test within 1 hr
-Has to be liquified
-Maintain at body temp while waiting.
What are normal characteristics of sperm?
-white/yellowgray/graywhite
-opaque
-coagulated
-liquifies in 10-20 in
-viscous
what is the normal VOLUME of semen?
-pH?
-Motility?
Vol = 1.5 - 5 ml
pH = 7.2 - 8.0
Motility: 40-100% should still be within 2 hrs of ejaculation.
What is a normal sperm count?
20 - 200 million / ml
What cells are normally in semen?
-How many?
WBC: <1million/mL
RBC: NONE
How much Fructose/Citric acid should be found in semen?
Fructose: 60-600 mg/dl
Citric acid: 90-1400 mg/dl
on to fecal analysis
ok
What is a random specimen collection used for analyzing?
cells
blood
bacteria

1 time is enough
What is a timed collection used to analyse?
fecal fat; collected for 3 days on a restricted diet.
What is a restricted diet collection used to analyse?
fecal fat
what is the purpose of examining fecal matter microscopically for fecal leukocytes?
-Check for parasites, viral and bacterial toxins in diarrhea.
-Differentiate condition of intestinal wall caused by invasive bacterial pathogens or ulcerative colitis.
what bacterial pathogens invade the intestinal cell wall?
-Salmonella
-Shigella
etc
What number of fecal leukocytes denotes normal bacterial toxins versus invasive?
normal: <1-3/hpf
invasive: >3/hpf
What methods are used to evaluate fecal fat?
-Microscopic
-Macroscopic
-Chemical
How much fat should be seen on the microscopic exam?
<60 fat globules per hpf
How is fecal fat qualitatively and macroscopically evaluated?
Because fat is caused by bile duct obstructions and pancreatic disorders, poop will have a bulky/frothy appearance.
How is a chemical analysis of fecal fat done?
-3 day collection in paint can.
-Restricted diet
-Convert lipids ->fatty acids, titrate with NaOH.
What is normal chemical result for fecal fat?
>or equal to 95% should be retained by the body.
-Fecal fat over 6.5g/day is way too much excretion.
What are 5 causes of blood in feces?
1. Colorectal cancer
2. Ulcers
3. Hemorrhoids
4. Drugs
5. Dysentary
How is fecal occult blood tested for?
(what is the indicator?)
Dipstick - same rxtn as urine.
Blue chromogen = GUALAC
How is fetal hgb in feces detected?
APT test