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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How is semen formed?
1. Sperm form in testes; stored in epididymis, adds 5% fluid
2. Seminal vesicles add 60% of fluid, including fructose.
3. Prostate adds 30% fluid, acidic.
4. Bulbourethral glands 5%
What does the prostate fluid added to semen contain?
Prostate fluid is acidic;
-Citric acid
-Proteolytic enzymes
What do the bulbourethral contributions to semen do?
-The fluid added makes semen thick and mucousy.
What hormones stimulate semen production/formation?
1. GnRH
2. FSH
3. LH
What does LH do?
Stimulates the Leydig cells to produce testosterone
What does FSH do?
Stimulates sperm formation and maturation.
What testing post-vasectomy confirms success?
2 consecutive sperm-free ejaculations.
What is varicocele?
a vericose vein in the scrotum.
What are the criteria for semen collection?
-Sexual abstinence at least 3 days but not more than 5.
-Test within 1 hr
-Has to be liquified
-Maintain at body temp while waiting.
What are normal characteristics of sperm?
-liquifies in 10-20 in
what is the normal VOLUME of semen?
Vol = 1.5 - 5 ml
pH = 7.2 - 8.0
Motility: 40-100% should still be within 2 hrs of ejaculation.
What is a normal sperm count?
20 - 200 million / ml
What cells are normally in semen?
-How many?
WBC: <1million/mL
How much Fructose/Citric acid should be found in semen?
Fructose: 60-600 mg/dl
Citric acid: 90-1400 mg/dl
on to fecal analysis
What is a random specimen collection used for analyzing?

1 time is enough
What is a timed collection used to analyse?
fecal fat; collected for 3 days on a restricted diet.
What is a restricted diet collection used to analyse?
fecal fat
what is the purpose of examining fecal matter microscopically for fecal leukocytes?
-Check for parasites, viral and bacterial toxins in diarrhea.
-Differentiate condition of intestinal wall caused by invasive bacterial pathogens or ulcerative colitis.
what bacterial pathogens invade the intestinal cell wall?
What number of fecal leukocytes denotes normal bacterial toxins versus invasive?
normal: <1-3/hpf
invasive: >3/hpf
What methods are used to evaluate fecal fat?
How much fat should be seen on the microscopic exam?
<60 fat globules per hpf
How is fecal fat qualitatively and macroscopically evaluated?
Because fat is caused by bile duct obstructions and pancreatic disorders, poop will have a bulky/frothy appearance.
How is a chemical analysis of fecal fat done?
-3 day collection in paint can.
-Restricted diet
-Convert lipids ->fatty acids, titrate with NaOH.
What is normal chemical result for fecal fat?
>or equal to 95% should be retained by the body.
-Fecal fat over 6.5g/day is way too much excretion.
What are 5 causes of blood in feces?
1. Colorectal cancer
2. Ulcers
3. Hemorrhoids
4. Drugs
5. Dysentary
How is fecal occult blood tested for?
(what is the indicator?)
Dipstick - same rxtn as urine.
Blue chromogen = GUALAC
How is fetal hgb in feces detected?
APT test