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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The CNS is made up of
Brain and Spinal cord.
The cranial nerves and cells of the cranial ganglia are part of the
PNS
PNS includes
-cranial nerves
-peripheral nerves
-cells of the cranial,spinal(Dorsal root ganglia) and autonomic ganglia.
Optic nerve is
CNS
The somatic division of the PNS consists of
-Cranial and Peripheral(spinal) nerves.
-Cells of the cranial and spinal ganglia.
Describe ANS
-primarily a motor system innervating smooth & cardiac muscle and glands.
-conveys sensory info from viscera.
Sympathetic NS consists of
Axons from T1-T12
L1-L3
Where are the cell bodies that give rise to axons that make up the ANS located?
Within CNS
PNS consists of
-CN 3,7,9,10
-Sacral nerves 2-4
Enteric NS refers to
Neurones in gut.
What are the major divisions of the CNS ?
7 major parts:-
-Spinal cord
-Medulla Oblongata
-Pons
-Cerebellum
-Midbrain
-Diencephalon
-Cerebral Hemispheres
What makes up the forebrain?
-Telencephalon(cerebral hemispheres)
-Diencephalon
What makes up the hindbrain?
-Medulla
-Pons
-Cerebellum
The brainstem consists of
-Midbrain
-Pons
-Medulla
White matter in the brain consists of
Myelinated and Unmyelinated axons and glia.
Gray matter in the brain consists of
Neurons,Astrocytes,Oligodendrocytes,microglia.
What reveals details of single neurons?
Golgi stains
What reveals distribution of cell bodies?
Nissl stains
What is the ratio of glial cells to neurons in the brain?
2:1
The female brain weighs less than the male brain.
True.(1450g in men & 1300 g in women)
Astrocyes
Uptake of ions and NTs to maintain appropriate microenvironment for neuronal function.
Oligodendrocytes
Formation of myelin
Microglia
Phagocytosis and production of cytokines.
What comprise the 3 layers of meninges?
Dura,Arachnoid and Pia mater which surround brain and spinal cord.
Whicn meningeal layer adheres to the periosteum of bone?
Dura mater(tough CT)
What are the ventricles?
Cavities within the brain-Lateral,Third and Fourth.
Where are the lateral ventricles?
Within the cerebral hemispheres.
Where is the 3rd ventricle located?
Median-vertically oriented cavity of diencephalon.
Where is the 4th ventricle?
Between pons/medulla and cerebellum.
The 3rd ventricle is confluent with the 4th ventricle via
Cerebral aqueduct.
What is the obex?
Point on the midline of the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata that marks the caudal angle of the rhomboid fossa.
What constitutes the roof of the 4th ventricle?
Axons of cerebellum and arachnoid mb.
What forms the CSF?
Choroid plexus,made up of choroid epithelium and tight junctions.(very vascular)
Through which foramina does the CSF escape from ventricles into the subarachnoid space?
Foramina of Magendie and Luschka.
The CSF from the subarachnoid space drains back into the vasculature via
Superior sagittal sinus.
What are the functions of the CSF?
-Cushion brain and spinal cord from trauma.
-Remove waste products
-Act as a conduit for peptide hormones
80% of CSF formed as ultrafiltrate of blood.
True(20% of CSF formed by susbtances diffusing out of brain into CSF)
Does the brain have a lymphatic system?
NO.
CSF is serum without plasma proteins.
True
CSF and the ECF are not in communication.
False.Communicate for constant Environment to maintain neurons.
How much CSF is present in the ventricular system and how many times is it replaced?
140 ml and 3 times a day.
Roofs of 3rd/4th ventricles adhere to arachnoid membranes and pia mb grows into them.
True
Hydrocephalus in babies is due to
a problem with cerebral aqueduct.
A buildup of CSF as someone grows older could indicate
A tumour of the choroid plexus.
Alcohol goes across the BBB.
True
Astrocytes are not involved in tight junctions.
False.
Tight junction between endothelial cells in capillaries of the BBB>
True
The BBB results from:-
-specialized properties of brain endothelial cells
-intercellular junctions
-relative lack of vesicular transport in endothelium.
What happens during development of spinal cord?
Vertebral column grows longer than spinal cord.
In adults,spinal cord occupies 2/3 of vertebral canal and cauda equina 1/3.
True
How many pairs of spinal nerves?
31 pairs.
At what level does the SC end?
L1
Lumbar puncture is usually performed at what level?
L3-L4 vertebral bodies level.
Is there some CSF down central canal?
Yes.
WHat does the central core of gray matter of the spinal cord consist of ?
Cells mediating spinal processing.
The white matter of the spinal cord is made up of
Ascending and Descending fibre tracts.
Quantity of white matter in the spinal cord increases rostrally.
True
Quantity of gray matter increases at cervical and lumbar enlargements.
True.
Where is lateral horn present?
In thoracic and upper lumbar segments.
Dorsal roots
Sensory
Ventral roots
Motor
Where do dorsal roots and ventral roots join to become the mixed sensory and motor spinal nerves?
Distal to the dorsal root ganglion.
What makes up the lateral,ventral and dorsal funiculi?
White matter.
What demarcates the dorsal funiculi(dorsal columns) from other funiculi?
They are homogeneous-tactile and proprioceptive sensory fibres
How are fibre tracts named?
From origin to their destination.
Break down spinal nerves.
8 C
12 T
5 L
5 S
Does PNS regenerate?
True
Where are the cranial nerve nuclei associated with cranial nerves 2-12 located?
Brainstem.
Where are the nuclei concerned with cardiorespiratory control and arousal(sleep/wake cycle) located?
Brainstem.
Cerebellum
-distinct folded structure(folia)
-involved with coordination of movement.(DOESNT INITIATE MVT)
Give a brief description of the pathway involving the cerebellum.
Input from muscles,tendons,joints,eyes,ears,vestibular system go to the cerebellum which outputs to cortex/brainstem via thalamus
Brainstem consists of
-Motor systems(nuclei and pathways)
-Sensory systems(nuclei and pathways)
-Cranial nerve nuclei(except 1st/2nd)
-Cardioresp. control
-Reticular formation
-Arousal(sleep/wake cycle)
What makes up the diencephalon?
-Thalamus
-Epithalamus
-Hypothalamus
-Subthalamus.
Do all sensory pathways synapse in thalamus on their way to cerebral cortex?
True,except for olfaction.
What constitues the telecephalon(cerebral hemispheres)?
-Cerebral cortex
-White matter
-Basal ganglia(mvt control)
-Hippocampus(memory)
-Amygdala(emotion and behaviour)
What constitutes the epithalamus?
Pineal gland which produces melatonin which sets the circadian rhythm.
Subthalamus is associated with
Motor.
Gyri
Ridges
Sulci
Depressions
What are the 4 lobes that the cortex is divided into?
-Frontal
-Temporal
-Parietal
-Occipital
On histological grounds,the cortex can be divided into many
Cytoarachitectonic areas
What the 3 broad categories the brain is divided into?
-Primary sensory and motor
-Sensory and motor association
-General association
What are the 2 main classes of neocortical neurones?
-Pyramidal cells
-Non-pyramidal cells(stellate or granule cells)