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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
High cellular metabolic activity causes ______ levels of adenosine, phosphate, PCO2, lacatate, K+, and H+, and a _____ level of O2 causing ____ of the arteriole.
increased, decreased, vasodilation
The mechanisms responsible for local control of blood flow are the _____, arising from the metabolic activity of surrounding cells, and the _____, related to the vessels themselves.
metabolic and paracrine agents, myogenic and endothelial
Paracrine releasing cells release vasodilators ____ and ____, and ______ which is a vasodilator or constrictor.
bradykin, histamine, prostaglandins
The myogenic theory of blood flow regulation states that when blood flow _____ because of a rise in pressure, the vessel wall is stretched eliciting a ____ response, ____ vessel diameter and returning blood flow to normal.
increases, contractile, reducing
Nitrous oxide is fromed within the ____ cels from L-______ by a Ca++ dependant enzyme, _______.
endothelial, arginine, nitrous oxide synthase
NO diffuses to smooth muscle cells, inducing _____, which activates transport channels to lower ____ and relax smooth muscle cells.
cGMP dependant protein kinase, Ca++
Endothelial NO is stimulated by _____ agents, _____ and ____, as well as _____.
paracrine, histamine, bradykin, Ach
NO is released when endothelial cells sense ____ stess.
shear
Shear stress is very important for increasing ____ blood flow during increased cardiac output.
coronary
Patients with severe infections have ____ due to excess production of ____.
hypotension (septic shock), NO
Diseases such as hypertension, cerebrovascular dysfunction, athersclerosis and diabetes are associated with impaired ____ function.
endothelial
Autoregulation is the ability of an organ to ______________.
maintain constant blood flow in the face of changing arterial pressure.
A sudden increase of perfusion pressure on local organ blood flow causes _____ and _____ vasoconstriction.
metabolic, myogenic
A sudden decrease in perfusion pressure will cause ____ and ____ in blood flow.
vasodilation, increase
The importance of autoregulation is to maintain relatively normal cerebral and cardiac blood flow during instances such as _____.
hemorrhage
_____ is defined as an increase in blood flow to an organ or tissue secondary to an increase in metabolic requirements.
active hyperemia
Active hyperemia is sometimes called _____ hyperemia.
functional or excercise
____ is an interruption of flow, generaly due to a temporary occlusion.
reactive hyperemia
Reactive hyperemia begins with an ____ in blood flow, resulting in the build up of ____, leading to ______, as well as a _____ response.
interuption, metabolites, vasodilation, myogenic
_____ hyperemia results from the build up of metabolites and a myogenic response.
reactive
Active hyperemia is the ____ of tissue metabolism, causing the ____ of metabolites into the ECF, causing the ___ of arterioles, causing ___ in resistance and ____ in blood flow.
increase, increase, vasodilation, decrease, increase
Active hyperemia will continue as long as _____, while reactive hyperemia will continue until ____ and ____.
tissue metabolism is high, metabolite washout and myogenic regulation returns to normal
Reactive hyperemia is the ____ of tissue blood flow due to an ______, that causes metabolites to accumulate causing _____, and a myogenic response causing _____, and once the occlusion is removed, decreased _____ causes ______ blood flow.
decrease, occlusion, vasodilation, vasodilation, resistance, increased
Coronary blood flow differs from other organs in that it is _____, and it is especially true for left _____ blood flow.
pulsatile, ventricular
The sympathetic system causes the heart to increase ____ and ____, but blood flow is regulated by ______.
heart rate, stroke volume, metabolic agents
In the heart ____ is the paracrine stimulus, and a role in dilation due to _____.
adenosine, sheer stress (flow dependent vasodilation)
Hemorrhage, edema or tumor growth can greatly increase ______ and reduce _____ in the brain.
extravascular, blood flow
Coronary flow and cerebral blood flow is preferredly controled by _____.
local metabolic conditions
The primary metabolite controlling brain blood flow is ____ via ___, while for coronary blood flow it is ______, and skeletal musce it is primarily _____ and ____.
PCO2, H+, adenosine, adenosine, K+
Brain blood flow increases via _______ when neuronal activity increases.
active hyperemia
In skeletal muscles, increased blood flow during running is due to ______ and increased blood flow due to lifting weights is due to _______.
active hyperemia, reactive hyperemia
Systemic circulation is ____ pressure, _____ resistance, and ____ compliance, while pulmonary circulation is ____ pressure, ____ resistance, and ____ compliance.
high, high, low, low, low, high
Sympathetic activity will increase _____ and ____ in pulmonary vasculature.
resistance, pressure
The major factor that alters pulmonary resistance is ______.
hypoxia
Hypoxia in systemic cirulation causes _____, and in pulomary circulation causes _____.
vasodilation, vasoconstriction
Blood flowing through poorly ventilated portions of the lung will produce _____, and redirect flow to better ventilated areas, optimizing _____ and _____.
vasoconstriction, ventilation, perfusion