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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A change from supine to a standing position causes an immediate reduction in ____ and _____ because blood pools in compliant ____ because of gravity.
venous return, cardiac output, veins
A change from supine to a standing position causes decrease in ____ and ____, _____ baroreceptor firing, resulting in ____ of heart rate, contractility and TPR.
venous return, CO, decreasing increase
The inability to maintain normal blood pressure with a change in position is called _____.
orthostatic hypotension
If a person is hypovolemic or has impaired baroreceptor reflexes, the body will be unable to _____.
return pressure to normal
Venous pooling can be reduced by the ____ pump or the ____ pump.
muscle, thoracic
The muscle pump works through ______.
contraction of skeletal muscles
With a deep inspiration intrathoracic pressure ____,causing a ____ in the transmural pressure on the intrathoracic veins and right atria, causing them to ___ and ____ hydrostatic pressure.
falls, reduction, expand, increase
With a deep inspiration intrathoracic pressure falls, reducing the transmural pressure on the intrathoracic veins and right atria, expanding them and decreasing ____ pressure, and increasing ______.
hydrostatic, venous return
During aerobic excercise, sympathetic stimulation of the heart increases _____ and _____.
CO, stroke volume
During excercise the elevation of CO is primarily due to increased ____.
heart rate
During exercise the elevation in stroke volume occurs from increased _____ and a reduction of ____ volume, in addition ____ volume and venous return are elevated because of the decrease in ____ and the increased activity of the _____ and _____ pumps.
contractility, end-systolic, end diastolic volume, venous compliance, muscle, thoracic
Ejection fraction ____ during excercise.
Well trained athletes have a _____ cardiac output than untrained individuals.
Sympathetic nerve stimulation causes a generalized _____, but is countered by metabolically mediated _____ in the excercising muscles, and a ____ in MAP.
vasoconstriction, vasodilation, only slight change
Aerobic conditioning lowers resting heart rate primarily by increasing _____ tone, secondly increasing ____ due to enlarged _____, and finally stimulation of ____.
vagal, stroke volume, ventricles, angiogenesis
The ______ system is the limiting system in terms of maximum aerobic capacity.
A _____ maneuver occurs when one takes a large breath and attempts to exhale forcibly for at least 10 secs with the glottis closed, as in constipation or lifting heavy weights, and as a cardio diagnostic tool.
In a valsalva maneuver, exhaling forcefully against a closed glottis, ______ intrathoracic pressure, _____ intrathoracic veins and the atria, _____ venous return, cardiac output and arterial blood pressure.
increasing, compressing, increasing
In Phase II of the Valsalva manuever, elevated intrathoracic pressure retards blood flow from veins outside the _____ region, resulting in a ____ in venous return, cardiac output and arterial blood pressuer.
thoracic, decreasing
In a Valsalva maneuver, baroreceptors in phase I ____ HR and TPR, while in phase II they _____ them.
decrease, increase
In phase III of the valsalva maneuver, immediately after releasing the breath, intrathoracic pressure ___, causing the intrathoracic veins and arteries to expand because because of reduction in ____ pressure.
falls, transmural pressure
The fall in intrathoracic pressure in phase III of the valsalva maneuver enhances blood flow from the ______ veins, causing a ____ in venous return, CO, and TPR.
intra-abdominal, fall
In phase III of the valsalva maneuver, baroreceptor reflex ______ heart rate and TPR.
In phase IV, of the Valsalva maneuver, intrathoracic veins and atria fill rapidly and venous return and CO _____, and is pumped against an elevated TPR produced in phase ____, causing arterial blood pressure to _____.
increases, III, very high
____ shock is due to a drop in blood volume secondary to hemorrhage, dehydration or burns.
____ shock is caused by bacterial toxins released during infection.
____ shock refers to a reduced CO secondary to impaired caridac fxn.
____ shock is triggered by an intense allergic reaction causing vasodilator release and a subsequent drop in blood pressure.
____ shock is the loss of vasomotor tone throughout the body and can be secondary to anesthesia, brain damage, or an extreme emotional insult.
With blood losses of 10-20% normalization of BP occurs through elevation in ___,____, ____ and a decrease in ___.
HR, TPR, contractility, venous compliance
With blood losses of 10-20%, ____ might be normal, but ____ maybe be depressed due primariyly to a reduced ____.
BP, CO, stroke volume
Fall in blood pressure greater than ____ or if reflex compensation is sustained for over 30 min, ____ can result.
20%, irreversible
Irreversible shock results first from _____ from the release from ischemic areas, depletion of neurotransmitters, and angiotensin II.
The second cause of irreversible shock is the _____ becomes depressed and is unable to maintain ____, because of the accumulation of acid and depressant- factors.
heart, CO
The third cause of irrevesible shock is the ____ becomes depressed from ischemia, compromising the baroreceptor reflex.
Irreversible shock occurs from the deterioration of _____, ___ and ____.
vascular dilation, heart, CNS
Impaired contractility or increased afterload causes ____ dysfunction.
____ dysfuction result from inadequate filling of the heart.
A MI, myocardial ischemia, chronic volume overload, mitral regurgitation, aortic regurgitation and dilated cardiomyopathy cause _____.
impaired contractility
Aortic stenosis and uncontrolled hypertension cause ____.
increased after load
_____ is defined as the inability of the ventricles to pump blood at sufficient volume to supply the metabolic needs of the body.
heart failure
A heart failure resulting from an inability to pump is a ____ failure.
A heart failure as a result of having to generate abnormally high pressure is _____ failure.
LV hypertrophy, mitral stenosis, pericardial restriction (tamponade) and restrictive cardiomyopathy cause _____.
impaired LV filling