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179 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
The smallest unit of life is the ______.
cell
____ is required to maintain levels of biological organization, from cells to populations, communities, and even entire ecosystems.
energy
______ is a state in which the internal environment is being maintained within a tolerable range.
homeostasis
Researchers assign all species to one of three ______.
domains
DNA _____.
a)contains instructions for building proteins.
b)undergoes mutation
c)is transmitted from parents to offspring
d)all of the above
d
______ is the acquisition of traits from parents who transmit their DNA to offspring.
a)reproduction
b)development
c)homeostasis
d)inheritance
d
Differences in heritable traits arise through ______.
mutation
A trait is ______ if it improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in the prevailing environment.
adaptive
A control group is _____.
a)the standard against which experimental groups can be compared.
b)the experiment that gives conclusive results
a
Match the terms with the most suitable description.
1. emergent properties, 2.natural selection, 3. scientific theory, 4. hypothesis, 5. prediction

a. statement of what you expect to find in nature based on hypothesis.
b. testable explanation about what causes an event or aspect of nature
c. requires interaction of parts that make up a new level of organization
d. a time-tested, related set of hypotheses that explains a broad range of observations and data
e. outcome of differences in survival and reproduction among individuals of a population that differ in the details of one or more traits.
c, e, d, b, a
Is this statement false?
Every type of atom consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
False
Electrons carry a ____ charge.
a. positive
b. negative
c. zero
b
A(n) _____ is any molecule to which a radioisotope has been attached for research or diagnostic purposes.
a. ion
b. isotope
c. element
d. tracer
d
Atoms share electrons unequally in a(n) _____ bond.
a. ionic
b. hydrogen
c. polar covalent
d. nonpolar covalent
c
In a hydrogen bond, a covalently bound hydrogen atom weakly attracts an _____ atom in a different molecule or a different region of the same molecule.
a. electronegative
b. electropositive
a
Liquid water shows _______.
a. polarity
b. hydrogen-bonding capacity
c. notable heat resistance
d. cohesion
e. b through d
f. all of the above
e
Hydrogen ions (H+) are ______.
a. the basis of pH values.
b. unbound protons
c. targets of certain buffers
d. dissolved in blood
e. both a and b
f. a through d
f
When dissolved in water, a(n) _______ donates H+, and a(n) _____ accepts H+.
acid, base
A(n) _______ is a dynamic chemical partnership between a weak acid and its salt.
a. ionic bond
b. solute
c. buffer system
d. solvent
c
Match the terms with their most suitable descriptions.
1. trace element, 2. salt, 3. covalent bond, 4. hydrophilic substance, 5. protons, neutrons

a. atomic nucleus components
b. two atoms sharing electrons
c. any polar molecule that readily dissolves in water
d. releases ions other than H+ and OH- when dissolved in water
e. makes up less than 0.001 percent of body weight.
e, d, b, c, a
Name the molecules of life and the families of small organic compounds from which they are built.
complex carbohydrates: simple sugars, lipids; fatty acids or sterol rings, proteins; amino acids, nucleic acids; nucleotides
Each carbon atom can share pairs of electrons with as many as _____ other atoms.
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
d. four
Sugars are a class of ______, which have one or more _______ groups.
a. proteins;amino
b. acids;phosphate
c. alcohols;hydroxyl
d. carbohydrates;carboxyl
c. alcohols;hydroxyl
_______ is a simple sugar (a monosaccharide).
a. glucose
b. sucrose
c. ribose
d. chitin
e. both a and b
f. both a and c
f. both a and c
The fatty acid tails of unsaturated fats incorporate one or more _______.
a. single covalent bonds
b. double covalent bonds.
b. double covalent bonds.
Sterols are among the many lipids with no ______.
a. saturation
b. fatty acids
c. hydrogens
d. carbons
b. fatty acids
Which of the following is a class of molecules that encompasses all of the other molecules listed?
a. triglycerides
b. fatty acids
c. waxes
d. sterols
e. lipids
f. phospholipids
e. lipids
_____ are to proteins as ______ are to nucleic acids.
a. sugars;lipids
b. sugars;proteins
c. amino acids;hydrogen bonds
d. amino acids;nucleotides
d. amino acids;nucleotides
A denatured protein has lost its _____.
a. hydrogen bonds
b. shape
c. function
d. all are correct
d. all are correct
Nucleotides occur in _______.
a. ATP
b. DNA
c. RNA
d. all are correct
d. all are correct
Which of the following nucleotides is not found in DNA?
a. adenine
b. uracil
c. thymine
d. guanine
b. uracil
Match the molecule with the most suitable description.
1. long sequence of amino acids, 2. energy carrier in cells
3. glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate
4. two strands of nucleotides
5. one or more sugar monomers

a. carbohydrate
b. phospholipid
c. polypeptide
d. DNA
e. ATP
c, e, b, d, a
Mitosis and cytoplasmic division function in ______.
a.asexual reproduction of single-celled eukaryotes
b. growth, tissue repair, often asexual reproduction
c. gamete formation in prokaryotes
d. both a and b
d. both a and b
A duplicated chromosome has ______ chromatid(s).
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
b. two
The basic unit that structurally organizes a eukaryotic chromosome is the _______.
a. higher order coiling
b. bipolar mitotic spindle
c. nucleosome
d. microfilament
c. nucleosome
The chromosome number is ___.
a. the sum of all chromosomes in cells of a given type
b. an identifiable feature of each species
c. maintained by mitosis
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
A somataic cell having two of each type of chromosome has a(n) _____ chromosome number.
a. diploid
b. haploid
c. tetraploid
d. abnormal
a. diploid
Interphase is the part of the cell cycle when ______.
a. a cell ceases to function
b. a germ cell forms its spindle apparatus
c. a cell grows and duplicates its DNA
d. mitosis proceeds
c. a cell grows and duplicates its DNA
After mitosis, the chromosome number of a daughter cell is ______ the parent cell's.
a. the same as
b. one-half
c. rearranged compared to
d. doubled compared to
a. the same as
Only ______ is not a stage of mitosis.
a. prophase
b. interphase
c. metaphase
d. anaphase
b. interphase
Match each stage with the events listed.
1. metaphase, 2. prophase, 3. telophase, 4. anaphase

a. sister chromatids move apart
b. chromosomes start to condense
c. daughter nuclei form
d. all duplicated chromosomes are aligned at the spindle equator
d, b, c, a
Meiosis and cytoplasmic division function in _______.
a.asexual reproduction of single-celled eukaryotes
b. growth, tissue repair, often asexual reproduction
c. sexual reproduction
d. both b and c
c. sexual reproduction
A duplicated chromosome has ______ chromatid(s).
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
b. two
A somatic cell having two of each type of chromosome has a(n) _____ chromosome number.
a. diploid
b. haploid
c. tetraploid
d. abnormal
a. diploid
Sexual reproduction requires _______.
a. meiosis
b. fertilization
c. spore formation
d. a and b
d. a and b
Generally, a pair of homologous chromosomes _____.
a. carry the same genes
b. are the same length, shape
c. interact at meiosis
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Meiosis ______ the parental chromosome number.
a. doubles
b. halves
c. maintains
d. corrupts
b. halves
Meiosis ends with the formation of _____.
a. two cells
b. two nuclei
c. eight cells
d. four nuclei
d. four nuclei
Sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosome separate during _____.
a. prophase I
b. prophase II
c. anaphase I
d. anaphase II
d. anaphase II
Sexual reproducers bestow variation in traits on offspring by _______.
a. crossing over
b. metaphase I random orientations
c. fertilization
d. both a and b
e. all of the above are factors
e. all of the above are factors
Match each term with hits description.
1. chromosome number, 2. alleles, 3. metaphase I, 4. interphase

a. different molecular forms of the same gene
b. none between neiosis I, II
c. all chromosomes aligned at spindle equator
d. sum total of all chromosomes in cells of a given type.
d, a, c, b
Alleles are _____.
a. different molecular forms of a gene.
b. different phenotypes
c. self-fertilizing, true breeding homozygotes
a. different molecular forms of a gene.
A heterozygote has a ______ for a trait being studied.
a. pair of identical alleles
b. pair of nonidentical alleles
c. haploid condition, in genetic terms
b. pair of nonidentical alleles
The observable traits of an organism are its _____.
a. phenotype
b. sociobiology
c. genotype
d. pedigree
a. phenotype
Second-generation offspring of a cross between parents who are homozygous for different alleles are the _______.
a. F1 generation
b. F2 generation
c. hybrid generation
d. none of the above
b. F2 generation
F1 offspring of the cross AA x aa are _______.
a. all AA
b. all aa
c. all Aa
d. 1/2 AA and 1/2 aa
c. all Aa
Assuming complete dominance between a cross of AA x aa, the F2 generation will show a phenotypic ratio of _____.
a. 3:1
b. 9:1
c. 1:2:1
d. 9:3:3:1
a. 3:1
Crosses between two dihybrid F1 pea plants, which are offspring from a parental cross AABB x aabb, result in F2 phenotypic ratios close to _____.
a. 1:2:1
b. 3:1
c. 1:1:1:1
d. 9:3:3:1
d. 9:3:3:1
The probability of a crossover occurring between two genes on the same chromosome is _____.
a. unrelated to the distance between them.
b. increased if they are close together
c. increased if they are far apart.
c. increased if they are far apart.
Two genes that are close together on the same chromosome are ______.
a. linked
b. identical alleles
c. homologous
d. autosomes
e. all of the above
a. linked
Match each example with the most suitable description.
1. dihybrid experiment, 2. monohybrid experiment, 3. homozygous condition, 4. heterozygous condition

a. bb
b. AABB x aabb
c. Aa
d. Aa x Aa
1. dihybrid experiment:
b. AABB x aabb
2. monohybrid experiment
d. Aa x Aa
3.homozygous condition
a. bb
4. heterozygous condition
c. Aa
The _____ of chromosomes in a cell are compared to construct karyotypes.
a. length and shape
b. centromere location
c. gene sequence
d. both a and b
d. both a and b
The _____ determines gender in humans.
a. X chromosome
b. Dll gene
c. SRY gene
d. both b and c
c. SRY gene
If one parent is heterozygous for a dominant allele on an autosome and the other parent is homozygous, any child of theirs has a _____ chance of being heterozygous.
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. no chance; it will die
b. 50%
Expansion mutations occur _____ within and between genes in human chromosomes.
a. only rarely
b. frequently
c. not at all
d. only in multiples of ten
b. frequently
Galactosemia is a case of _____ inheritance.
a. autosomal dominant.
b. autosomal recessive
c. x-linked dominant
d. x-linked recessive
b. autosomal recessive
Is this statement true or false?
A son can inherit an X-linked recessive allele from his father.
False
Color blindness is a case of _____ inheritance.
a. autosomal dominant.
b. autosomal recessive
c. x-linked dominant
d. x-linked recessive
d. x-linked recessive
A(n) _____ can alter chromosome structure.
a. deletion
b. duplication
c. inversion
d. translocation
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Nondisjunction may occur during ______.
a. mitosis
b. meiosis
c. fertilization
d. both a and b
d. both a and b
Is this statement false?
Body cells sometimes inherit three or more of each type of chromosome characteristic of the other species, a condition called aneuploidy.
False
The karyotype for Klinefelter syndrome is _______.
a. XO
b. XXX
c. XXY
d. XYY
c. XXY
A recognized set of symptoms that characterize a specific disorder is a ______.
a. syndrome
b. disease
c. pedigree
a. syndrome
Match the chromosome terms appropriately.
1. polyploidy
2. deletion
3. nondisjunction
4. translocation
5. karyotype
6. aneuploidy

a. number and defining features of an individual's metaphase chromosomes
b. segment of a chromosome moves to a nonhomologous chromosome
c. extra chromosome sets
d. one outcome: gametes with wrong chromosome number
e. a chromosome segment loss
f. .change by one chromosome
1. polyploidy
c. extra chromosome sets
2. deletion
e. a chromosome segment loss
3. nondisjunction
d. one outcome: gametes with wrong chromosome number
4. translocation
b. segment of a chromosome moves to a nonhomologous chromosome
5. karyotype
a. number and defining features of an individual's metaphase chromosomes
6. aneuploidy
f. .change by one chromosome
Biogeographers deal with _____.
a. patterns in which continents drift.
b. patterns in the world distribution of species
c. mainland and island biodiversity
d. both b and c are correct
e. all are correct
d. both b and c are correct
_____ have influenced the fossil record.
a. sedimentation and compaction
b. crustal plate movements
c. volcanic ash deposition
d. a through c
d. a through c
Life originated in the _____ eon.
a. Archean
b. Proterozoic
c. Phanerozoic
d. Cambrian
a. Archean
Which of these supercontinents formed first:
Pangea or Gondwana?
Gondwana
Through _____, the same body parts became modified differently in different lines of descent from a common ancestor.
a. morphological convergence
b. morphological divergence
c. ancestral analogy
d. ancestral homology
b. morphological divergence
Homologous structures in the program by which embryos develop, _____ may lead to major differences between adults of related lineages.
a. size
b. shape
c. function
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
By altering steps in the program by which embryos develop, _____ may lead to major differences between adults of related lineages.
a. automated gene sequencing
b. homeotic gene mutations
c. transposons
d. b and c
d. b and c
Molecular clocks are based on comparisons of _____ mutations in _____ genes.
a. beneficial;moderately conserved
b. neutral;moderately conserved
c. neutral;highly conserved
d. lethal;highly conserved
c. neutral;highly conserved
Individuals don't evolve, ______ do.
populations
Biologists define evolution as ___.
a. purposeful change in a lineage
b. heritable change in a line of descent
c. acquiring traits during the individual's lifetime
d. both a and b
b. heritable change in a line of descent
____ is the original source of new alleles.
a. mutation
b. natural selection
c. genetic drift
d. gene flow
e. all are original sources of new alleles
a. mutation
Natural selection may occur when there are _____.
a. differences in forms of traits
b. differences in survival and reproduction among individuals that differ in one or more traits
c. both a and b
c. both a and b
Directional selection _____.
a. eliminates common forms of alleles
b. shifts allele frequencies in one direction only.
c. favors intermediate forms of a trait
d. works against adaptive traits
b. shifts allele frequencies in one direction only.
Disruptive selection ____.
a. eliminates uncommon forms of alleles.
b. shifts allele frequencies in one direction only
c. doesn't favor intermediate forms of a trait
d. both b and c
c. doesn't favor intermediate forms of a trait
Sexual selection, especially competition between males for access to fertile females, frequently influences aspects of body form and leads to _____.
a. inbreeding
b. genetic drift
c. sexual dimorphism
d. both b and c
c. sexual dimorphism
The persistence of malaria and sickle-cell anemia in a population is a case of ____.
a. bottlenecking
b. balanced polymorphism
c. natural selection
d. artificial selection
e. both b and c
e. both b and c
_____ tends to counter changes that occur in the allele frequencies among populations of a species.
a. genetic drift
b. gene flow
c. mutation
d. natural selection
a. genetic drift
Match the evolution concepts.
1. gene flow
2. natural selection
3. mutation
4. genetic drift

a. source of new alleles
b. changes in a population's allele frequencies due to chance alone
c. allele frequencies change owing to immigration, emigration, or both
d. outcome of differences in survival, reproduction among individuals of a population that vary in the details of shared traits.
1. gene flow
c. allele frequencies change owing to immigration, emigration, or both
2. natural selection
d. outcome of differences in survival, reproduction among individuals of a population that vary in the details of shared traits.
3. mutation
a. source of new alleles
4. genetic drift
b. changes in a population's allele frequencies due to chance alone
___ can isolate one population from others.
a. structural traits
b. functional traits
c. behavioral traits
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Reproductive isolating mechanisms _____.
a. stop interbreeding
b. stop gene flow
c. reinforce genetic divergence
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Most species originate by a(n) ____ route.
a. allopatric
b. sympatric
c. parapatric
d. parametric
a. allopatric
In evolutionary trees, a branch point represents a ____; a branch that ends represents a _____.
a. single species;incomplete data on lineage
b. single species;extinction
c. time of divergence;extinction
d. time of divergence;speciation complete
c. time of divergence;extinction
Fossil evidence supports the _____ model of evolutionary change.
a. punctuation
b. gradual
c. both are correct
c. both are correct
Pinus banksiana, Pinus strobus, and Pinus radiata are _____.
a. three families of pine trees
b. three different names for the same organism
c. three species grouped in the same genus
d. both a and c
c. three species grouped in the same genus
Individuals of a monophyletic group _____.
a. are all descended from an ancestral species.
b. demonstrate morphological convergence
c. have a derived trait that first evolved in their last shared ancestor.
d. both a and c
d. both a and c
A(n) ____ classification system reflects presumed evolutionary relationships.
a. epigenetic
b. tectonic
c. phylogenetic
d. both b and c.
c. phylogenetic
In modern classification systems, groupings of sets of taxa range from _____ to _____.
a. kingdom;genera and species
b. kingdom;genera and domain
c. genera;domain and kingdom
d. species;kingdom and domain
d. species;kingdom and domain
Match these terms suitably.
1. phylogeny
2. extinction
3. domain
4. derived trait
5. cladogram
6. adaptive radiation

a. now the most inclusive taxon
b. tree of branching lineages
c. many lineages diverge from one into a new adaptive zone
d. end of a species or lineage
e. evolutionary history of species
f. only in descendants of ancestor in which it first evolved
1. phylogeny
e. evolutionary history of species
2. extinction
d. end of a species or lineage
3. domain
a. now the most inclusive taxon
4. derived trait
f. only in descendants of ancestor in which it first evolved
5. cladogram
b. tree of branching lineages
6. adaptive radiation
c. many lineages diverge from one into a new adaptive zone
An abundance of _____ in the atmosphere would have prevented the spontaneous (abiotic) assembly of organic compounds on the early Earth.
a. hydrogen
b. methane
c. oxygen
d. nitrogen
c. oxygen
The prevalence of iron-sulfide cofactors in living organisms may be evidence that life arose ____.
a. in outer space
b. on tidal flats
c. near deep-sea vents
d. in the upper atmosphere
c. near deep-sea vents
The evolution of ____ resulted in an increase in the levels of atmospheric oxygen.
a. sexual reproduction
b. aerobic respiration
c. the noncyclic pathway of photosynthesis
d. the cyclic pathway of photosynthesis
c. the noncyclic pathway of photosynthesis
Mitochondria may have evolved from ____.
a. chloroplasts
b. bacteria
c. early protists
d. archaeans
b. bacteria
Infoldings of the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of some prokaryotes may have evolved into the _____.
a. nucleaer envelope.
b. ER membranes
c. early protists
d. archaeans
d. archaeans
Chronologically arrange the evolutionary events, with 1 being the earliest and 6 being the most recent.
a. emergence of the noncyclidic pathway of photosynthesis
b. origin of mitochondria
c. origin of proto-cells
d. emergence of the cyclic pathway of photosynthesis
e. origin of chloroplasts
f. the big bang
1. f. the big bang
2.c. origin of proto-cells
3.. emergence of the cyclic pathway of photosynthesis
4.a. emergence of the noncyclidic pathway of photosynthesis
5.b. origin of mitochondria
6.e. origin of chloroplasts
Only ___ are prokaryotic.
a. archaeans
b. bacteria
c. prions
d. both a and b
d. both a and b
Bacteria transfer plasmids by ____.
a. prokaryotic fission
b. endospore formation
c. conjugation
d. proteobacteria
c. conjugation
The ___ are all oxygen-releasing photoautotrophs.
a. spirochetes
b. chlamydias
c. cyanobacteria
d. proteobacteria
c. cyanobacteria
The normally harmless E. coli in your gut are _____.
a. spirochetes
b. chlamydias
c. cyanobacteria
d. proteobacteria
d. proteobacteria
All ___ are intracellular parasites of vertebrates.
a. spirochetes
b. chlamydias
c. cyanobacteria
d. proteobacteria
b. chlamydias
Some Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Bacillus anthracis) survive harsh conditions by forming a(n) ___.
a. pilus
b. heterocyst
c. endospore
d. plasmid
c. endospore
Only ___ reproduce by prokaryotic fission.
a. viruses
b. archaeans
c. bacteria
d. b and c are correct
d. b and c are correct
DNA or RNA may be the genetic material of _____.
a. bacteria
b. a virus
c. archaeans
d. a prion
b
Is this statement false?
All known viruses consist of genetic material, a protein coat, and an outer envelope.
false
Bacteriophages can multiply by _____.
a. prokaryotic fission
b. the lytic pathway
c. the lysogenic pathway
d. both b and c
d. both b and c
Match the terms with their most suitable description.
1. archean
2. bacteria
3. virus
4. plasmid
5. extreme halophile
6. prion
7. sex pilus

a. infectious protein
b. nonliving infectious particle; nucleic acid core, protein coat
c. prelude to conjugation
d. prokaryotes that most closely resemble eukaryotes
e. most common prokaryotic cell
f. small circle of bacterial DNA
g. salt lover
1. archean
d. prokaryotes that most closely resemble eukaryotes
2. bacteria
e. most common prokaryotic cell
3. virus
b. nonliving infectious particle; nucleic acid core, protein coat
4. plasmid
f. small circle of bacterial DNA
5. extreme halophile
g. salt lover
6. prion
a. infectious protein
7. sex pilus
c. prelude to conjugation
Trypanosomes cause which disease(s)?
a. giardiasis
b. Chagas disease
c. amoebic dysentary
d. African sleeping sickness
e. malaria
f. both b and d
f. both b and d
Foraminiferans and radiolarians have ____.

b. chloroplasts
c. cilia
a. pseudopods
Alveolates include ___.
a. ciliates
b. apicomplexans
c. dinoflagellates
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Stramenopiles share a unique derived trait: ___ project from one of their two flagella.
a. tinselly filaments
b. brown cilia
c. forked ends
d. cysts
a. tinselly filaments
Algin is used in ice cream, pudding, salad dressing, jelly beans, beer, cough syrup, toothpaste, cosmetics, and other products. Certain ____ are sources of algin.
a. green algae
b. brown algae
c. red algae
d. dinoflagellates
b. brown algae
____ are free-living, amoebalike cells that crawl on rotting plant parts and engulf bacteria and other prey.
a. water molds
b. radiolarians
c. apicomplexans
d. slime molds
d. slime molds
Match the terms with the most suitable descriptions.
1. binary fission
2. endosymbiont
3. water mold
4. red tide
5. plankton
6. green algae

a. lives inside another cell
b. decomposer; recycles nutrients
c. protist population explosion
d. closest relatives of plants
e. asexual reproduction mode
f. aquatic community, drifters or weak swimmers, microscopic
1. binary fission
e. asexual reproduction mode
2. endosymbiont
a. lives inside another cell
3. water mold
b. decomposer; recycles nutrients
4. red tide
c. protist population explosion
5. plankton
f. aquatic community, drifters or weak swimmers, microscopic
6. green algae
d. closest relatives of plants
The first plants were ____.
a. brown algae
b. green algae
c. bryophytes
d. lycophytes
c. bryophytes
Which of the following statements is false?
a. gymnosperms are the simplest vascular plants
b. bryophytes are nonvascular plants
c. lycophytes and angiosperms are vascular plants
d. only angiosperms produce flowers
a. gymnosperms are the simplest vascular plants
Bryophytes alone have independent ____ as well as attached, dependent ____.
a. sporophytes; gametophytes
b. gametophytes;sporophytes
c. rhizoids;zygotes
d. rhizoids;stalked sporangia
b. gametophytes;sporophytes
Lycophytes, horsetails, and ferns are ____ plants.
a. multicelled aquatic.
b. nonvascular seed
c. seedless vascular
d. seed-bearing vascular
c. seedless vascular
Coal consists primarily of compressed remains of the ____ that dominated the Carboniferous swamp forests.
a. seedless vascular plants
b. seed-bearing plants
c. flowering plants
d. a and c
a. seedless vascular plants
The ____ produce flagellated sperm.
a. bryophytes
b. lycophytes
c. conifers
d. monocots
e. a and b
f. a through c
e. a and b
A seed is a(n) _____.
a. female gametophyte
b. mature ovule
c. mature pollen tube
d. immature embryo
b. mature ovule
Which does NOT apply to gymnosperms or angiosperms?
a. vascular tissues
b. diploid dominance
c. single spore type
d. cuticle with stomata
c. single spore type
Match the terms appropriately.
1. gymnosperm
2. sporophyte
3. lycophyte
4. ovary
5. bryophyte
6. gametophyte
7. stomata
8. angiosperm

a. gamete-producing body
b. help control water loss
c. "naked" seeds
d. only plant that produces flowers
e. spore-producing body
f. nonvascular land plant
g. seedless vascular plant
h. ovules form in it
1. gymnosperm
c. "naked" seeds
2. sporophyte
e. spore-producing body
3. lycophyte
g. seedless vascular plant
4. ovary
h. ovules form in it
5. bryophyte
f. nonvascular land plant
6. gametophyte
a. gamete-producing body
7. stomata
b. help control water loss
8. angiosperm
d. only plant that produces flowers
All animals _____.
a. are motile for at least some stage in the life cycle.
b. consist of tissues arranged as organs
c. can reproduce asexually as well as sexually
d. both a and b
a. are motile for at least some stage in the life cycle.
A coelom is a _____.
a. lined body cavity
b. resting stage
c. sensory organ
d. type of bristle
a. lined body cavity
Cnidarians alone produce _____.
a. nematocysts
b. a mantle
c. a hydrostatic skeleton
d. malpighian tubules
a. nematocysts
Flukes are most closely related to ____.
a. planarians
b. roundworms
c. arthropods
d. echinoderms
a. planarians
Which group has the greatest number of species?
a. crustaceans
b. insects
c. mollusks
d. roundworms
b. insects
Earthworm nephridia perform a function most similar to the ____.
a. gemmules of sponges
b. chelicerae of spiders
c. flame cells of planarians
d. tube feet of echinoderms
c. flame cells of planarians
The _____ are coelomate and radial as adults.
a. cnidarians
b. echinoderms
c. roundworms
d. both a and c
b. echinoderms
Match the organisms with their appropriate descriptions.
1. choanoflagellate
2. sponges
3. cnidarians
4. flatworms
5. roundworms
6. annelids
7. arthropods
8. mollusks
9. echinoderms

a. complete gut, false coelom
b. simplest organ systems
c. no tissues, no organs
d. jointed exoskeleton
e. mantle over body mass
f. segmented worms
g. tube feet, spiny skin
h. nematocyst producers
i. sister taxon of animals
1. choanoflagellate
i. sister taxon of animals
2. sponges
c. no tissues, no organs
3. cnidarians
h. nematocyst producers
4. flatworms
b. simplest organ systems
5. roundworms
a. complete gut, false coelom
6. annelids
f. segmented worms
7. arthropods
d. jointed exoskeleton
8. mollusks
e. mantle over body mass
9. echinoderms
g. tube feet, spiny skin
The rate at which a population grows or declines depends on the rate of _____.
a. births
b. deaths
c. immigration
d. emigration
e. a and b
f. all of the above
f. all of the above
Populations grow exponentially when ___.
a. its rate of increase is proportional to the size of its reproductive base in a given interval.
b. the size of a low-density population increases slowly, then quickly, then levels off once the carrying capacity is reached.
c. a and b are characteristics of exponential growth
a. its rate of increase is proportional to the size of its reproductive base in a given interval.
For a given species, the maximum rate of increase per individual under ideal conditions is its ____.
a. biotic potential
b. carrying capacity
c. environmental resistance
d. density control
a. biotic potential
Resource competition, disease, and predation are ____ controls on population growth rates.
a. density-independent
b. population-sustaining
c. age-specific
d. density-dependent
d. density-dependent
A life history pattern for a population is a set of adaptations that influence the individual's _____.
a. longevity
b. fertility
c. age at reproductive maturity
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
In 2004, the worldwide average rate of increase for the human population at midyear was ____ percent.
a. 0
b.0.5
c. 1.3
d. 2.7
e. 3.8
f. 4.6
c. 1.3
Match each term with its most suitable description.
1. carrying capacity
2. exponential growth
3. biotic potential
4. limiting factor
5. logistic growth

a. maximum rate of increase per individual under ideal conditions
b. population growth plots out as an S-shaped curve
c. maximum number of individuals sustainable by the resources in a given environment
d. population growth plots out as a J-shaped curve
e. essential resource that restricts population growth when scarce
1. carrying capacity
c. maximum number of individuals sustainable by the resources in a given environment
2. exponential growth
d. population growth plots out as a J-shaped curve
3. biotic potential
a. maximum rate of increase per individual under ideal conditions
4. limiting factor
e. essential resource that restricts population growth when scarce
5. logistic growth
b. population growth plots out as an S-shaped curve
A habitat ____.
a. has distinguishing physical and chemical features
b. is where individuals of a species normally live
c. is occupied by various species
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
A niche is ____.
a. the sum of activities and relationships by which individuals of a species secure and use resources
b. unvarying for a given species
c. something that shifts in large and small ways
d. both a and c
d. both a and c
Two species may coexist indefinitely in some habitat when they ____.
a. differ in their use of resources
b. share the same resource in different ways
c. use the same resource at different times
d. both b and c
d. both b and c
A predator population and prey population ____.
a. always coexist at relatively stable levels.
b. may undergo cyclic or irregular changes in density
c. cannot coexist indefinitely in the same habitat
d. both b and c
b. may undergo cyclic or irregular changes in density
Parasites ____.
a. weaken their hosts.
b. can kill novel hosts
c. feed on host tissues
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
By a currently favored hypothesis, species richness of a community is greatest between physical disturbances of ____ intensity or frequency.
a. low
b. intermediate
c. high
d. variable
b. intermediate
Match the terms with the most suitable descriptions
1. geographic dispersal
2. area effect
3. pioneer species
4. climax community
5. keystone species
6. exotic species
7. resource partitioning

a. opportunistic colonizer of barren or disturbed habitat
b. greatly affects other species
c. individuals leave home range, become established elsewhere
d. more species on large islands than small ones at the same distance from the source of colonists
e. array of species at the end of successional stages in a habitat
f. allows competitors to coexist
g. often outcompete, displace native species of established communiity
1. geographic dispersal
c. individuals leave home range, become established elsewhere
2. area effect
d. more species on large islands than small ones at the same distance from the source of colonists
3. pioneer species
a. opportunistic colonizer of barren or disturbed habitat
4. climax community
e. array of species at the end of successional stages in a habitat
5. keystone species
b. greatly affects other species
6. exotic species
g. often outcompete, displace native species of established communiity
7. resource partitioning
f. allows competitors to coexis
Ecosystems have ___.
a. energy inputs and outputs
b. one trophic level
c. no nutrient outputs; all nutrients are cycled
d. a and b
a. energy inputs and outputs
Organisms at the lowest trophic level in a tallgrass prairie are all ___.
a. at the first step away from the original energy output.
b. autotrophs
c. heterotrophs
d. both a and b
e. both a and c
d. both a and b
Decomposers are commonly _____.
a. fungi
b. animals
c. bacteria
d. a and c
d. a and c
Trophic levels are ____.
a. structured feeding relationships
b. a case of who eats whom in an ecosystem
c. a heirarchy of energy transfers
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Primary productivity on land is affected by _____.
a. nutrient availability
b. amount of sunlight
c. temperature
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
If biological magnification occurs, the ____ will have the highest levels of toxins in their systems.
a. producers
b. herbivores
c. primary carnivores
d. top carnivores
d. top carnivores
Disruption of the ____ cycle is depleting aquifers.
a. hydrologic
b. carbon
c. nitrogen
d. phosphorus
a. hydrologic
Earth's largest carbon reservoir is _____.
a. the atmosphere
b. sediments and rocks
c. seawater
d. living organisms
b. sediments and rocks
The ____ cycle is a sedimentary cycle.
a. hydrologic
b. carbon
c. nitrogen
d. phosphorus
d. phosphorus
____ is often a limiting factor for plant growth.
a. nitrogen
b. carbon
c. phosphorus
d. both a and c
e. all of the above
b. carbon
Nitrogen fixation converts ____ to ____.
a. nitrogen gas;ammonia
b. nitrates;nitrites
c. ammonia;nitrogen gas
d. ammonia;nitrates
e. nitrites;nitrogen oxides
a. nitrogen gas;ammonia
Match the terms with suitable descriptions.
1. producers
2. herbivores
3. decomposers
4. detrivores

a. feed on plants
b. feed on small bits of organic matter
c. degrade organic wastes and remains to inorganic forms
d. capture sunlight energy
1. producers
d. capture sunlight energy
2. herbivores
a. feed on plants
3. decomposers
c. degrade organic wastes and remains to inorganic forms
4. detrivores
b. feed on small bits of organic matter
Solar radiation drives the distribution of weather systems and so influences ____.
a. temperature zones
b. rainfall distribution
c. seasonal variations
d. all of the above
c. seasonal variations
____ shields life against the sun's UV wavelengths.
a. a thermal inversion
b. acid precipitation
c. the ozone layer
d. the greenhouse effect
c. the ozone layer
Regional variations in the global patterns of rainfall and temperature depend on ____.
a. global air circulation
b. ocean currents
c. topography
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
A rain shadow is a reduction in rainfall ____.
a. on the leeward side of a mountain range.
b. during an El Niño event
c. that occurs seasonally in the tropics.
a. on the leeward side of a mountain range.
Acid rain is one outcome of ____.
a. coal burning
b. gas and oil burning
c. nitrogen-rich fertilizers
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Biomes are ___.
a. water provinces
b. water and land zones
c. vast expanses of land
d. partly characterized by dominant plants
e. both c and d
d. partly characterized by dominant plants
Biome distribution depends on ____.
a. climate
b. topography
c. soils
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Grasslands are most often predominant ____.
a. near the equator.
b. at high altitudes
c. in interior of continents
d. b and c
c. in interior of continents
During _____, deeper, often nutrient-rich water moves to the surface of a body of water.
a. spring overturns
b. fall overturns
c. upwellings
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Match the terms with the most suitable description.
1. tundra
2. chaparral
3. desert
4. savanna
5. estuary
6. boreal forest
7. tropical rain forest
8. hydrothermal vents

a. equatorial broadleaf forest
b. partly enclosed by land;where freshwater and seawater mix
c. type of grassland with trees
d. has low-growing plants at high latitudes or elevations
e. at latitudes 30 degrees north and south
f. mineral-rich, superheated water supports communities here
g. conifers dominate
h. dry shrubland
1. tundra
d. has low-growing plants at high latitudes or elevations
2. chaparral
h. dry shrubland
3. desert
e. at latitudes 30 degrees north and south
4. savanna
c. type of grassland with trees
5. estuary
b. partly enclosed by land;where freshwater and seawater mix
6. boreal forest
g. conifers dominate
7. tropical rain forest
a. equatorial broadleaf forest
8. hydrothermal vents
f. mineral-rich, superheated water supports communities here