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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-Nonliving, not derived from life
-study of all other elements (w/out carbon)
-Living, having the characteristics of life.
-Study of compounds of carbon
Friedrich Wohler
In the old days chemist believed that only non living organisms, within their cells, could make organic compounds. In 1828,
Ammonium Cyanate from Lead Cyanate and Ammonium Hydroxide, made Urea,

which is synthesiszed in the liver, and transported to the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

Urea and Ammonium Cyanate have the same formula CN2H40, but the atoms are arranged differently.

At first Ammonium Cyanate is formed, but heat causes it to rearrange to Urea.
Group 1A: Alkali Earth Metals
Li, Na, K, Ru,Ce, Fr - hae the same valence electron configuration ns1.

Alkali Metal Ions, have the same electron configuration of the noble gas it precedes.

All alkali metals form oxides.

Soluable in water.

Li2CO4 - used in medicine to level out the dangerous manic highs that occur in manic depressive psychoses.

Balance of Na and K are important in many functions of living tissues and the transmission of nerve impulses.

K are an essential nutrient for plants, KCl is usual in fertilizers.
Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Elements
valence electron ns2.

Except for Be, alkaline earth atoms show up a tendency to give up two electrons, forming 2+ ions.

All for oxides of the general formula MO.

Be is poisonous in all forms

Mg ions are essential to both plants and animals. Incorporated in chlorophyll molecules, essential for photosynthesis.

Ca and Mg are essential for proper functioning of the nerves that control muscles.

Ca necessary for the development of bones and teeth, clotting, regular heart beat.

H20 containing Ca and Mg, is known as hard water.
Group 3A: Boron and Alumnium
metalloid: boron and Metals: Al, Ga, In, Th.

Electron configuration of ns2np1.

Boric acid is the ingrediant in mild antiseptic eye rinses.

Al is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust.
Group 4A: Compounds of Carbon
non metal: carbon
metalloid: silicon and germanium
metals: tin and lead

electron configuration: ns2np2

Carbon with millions of compounds of H = Hydrocarbons

Compounds and hydrocarbons derived from then are called Organic Compounds.

CO, CO2, and CaCO3 are considered inorganic.

Carbon exists in two main allotropic forms.
such as graphite and diamond

Coal and related solid fuels are composed of varying amounts of elemental carbon. the carbon combines with sufficient oxygen to form carbon dioxide. With less oxygen, poisonous carbon monoxide forms.
Modifications of an element that exists in more than one form in the same physical state.
Group 5A: Some Nitrogen Compounds
Essential to both plant and animal life.

Component of proteins, nuclicacids, and other biochemicals.

Makes up 78% of the atmosphere

Must be fixed before it can be used by plants or animals, converted to a compound that can be used by plants.

Some bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates.

lightning, causes N to combine with O to form nitric oxide and NO2

NO2 reacts with water to form nitric acid. HNO3. The nitric acids falls in rain water, adding to the supply of nitrates in the oceans and soil. Industrial fixation of N by use of nitrogen fertilizers.
Group 6A: Compounds of Oxygen and Sulfur
electron configuation: Ns2np4

Oxide ions have the same electron configuration as neon.

Occurs in atmosphere as a diatomic molecule.

Involved in the oxidation processess such as combustion and rusting and other forms of corrosion and respiration.

O reacts rapidly with more active metals.
Group 7A: Halogens

electron configuration of ns2np5

all exist as diatomic molecules

gain an electron to form a negative ion for noble gas configuration.

form salts by combining with metals.

combine with H to form hydrogen halides

Fl salts in moderate high [] are poisons. Small amounts are essential for our well being.

Flouridation results in the incidence of dental caries by strengthening tooth enamel.

Cl as an element, is used to kill bacteria in water treatment plants.

Sodium hypochlorite is in bleaching solutions. Chlorine is present in our bodies as chloride ions, with is essential for preserving the acid-base balance and osmotic pressure for the production of hydrochloric acid by our stomachs.

AgBr, sensitive to light and used in film.

Sodium bromide and Potassium bromide have been used as sedatives.

Iodine needed for proper action of the thyroid gland.

used as antiseptic, from the released iodophores.

in water it forms acids.

HCl is in our stomachs invovled in the digestive process.
Group 8A: Noble Gases
they lack reactivity

occur naturally only in the elemental form and only as monatomic species.

Ne is used in lighted signs.

He in balloons and blimps.

Kr and Xe are too expensive and have important commercial applications.

Ra, collected from radioactive decay of ra. sealed in viles and used in radiation therapy.
Transition Metals: B Group
All are metals in the elemental form.


Fe, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Vn, Cr, Ni, Tungsten, and molybdenum.

Cd and Hg are dangerous poisons

Cr stabilizes glucose levels in the blood and in metabolizing carbs and lipids.

Co is a component of vit. b12

Fe is for the proper functioning of hG, involved in O2 transport.

Oxygen deficiency disease that results is methhemobinemia.