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56 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 factors that affect ingenous rock textures?
Magma and Lava
Phaneritic Texture
large crystals, coarse grained, visible to the eye, cooling magma, plutonic environment
Amphanitic Texture
fine grained, small crystal, volcanic environment
Porphyritic Texture
2 minerals, lg and small grains, phenocrysts,
Glassy Texture
no minerals, rapid cooling, volcanic environment
Vesicular Texture
vesicle within igneous rock
Pyroclastic Texture
pyroclastic eruptions,numerous grains weeded together, volcanic environment
Felsic
65% of silica
Intermediate
55-65% of silica
Mafic
45-55% of silica
Pegmatite
crystals much larger, few in. to 100 ft thick, precious gemstones
Dike
discordant feature, cut across rock layer, tabular shaped intrusion
Sill
concordant feature,runs parallel to rock layer, tabular shaped intrusion
Volcanic Pipe/Neck
cylindrical conduit connects its crater to a magma champer, Devil's Tower
Laccolith
concordant feature, mature sills, mushroom shape,larger in mass than sill
Pegmatite
crystals much larger, few in. to 100 ft thick, precious gemstones
Dike
discordant feature, cut across rock layer, tabular shaped intrusion
Sill
concordant feature,runs parallel to rock layer, tabular shaped intrusion
Volcanic Pipe/Neck
cylindrical conduit connects its crater to a magma champer, Devil's Tower
Laccolith
concordant feature, mature sills, mushroom shape,larger in mass than sill
Batholith
dicordant, largest of all intrusive plutonic stucture, felsic/intermediate magma
Granitization
hot batholith alters surrounding rock
Stoping
detaching pieces of country rock by rising magma, separates batholith
Metamorphic
"change in form"
What types of rocks can be metamorphosed?
igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary
What does NOT take place during metamorphism?
NO true melting
Parent Rock
intial rock that gets change dit to metamorphism process
What happens to the heat and or pressure intensity as the grade of metamorphism increases?
creates a new rock
Heat
increases rate of chemical reactions that produce different minerals
Sources of Heat
intrusive magma deep along subduction zone
Geothermal Gradient
*20-30 degrees C*
temp increases/depth at rate in earth's crust
Pressure
weight of overlying rocks, closely packed mineral grains,recrystallization
Contact Metamorphism
body of magma alters surrounding country rock
Dynamic Metamorphism
results from high differential pressure, near faults, only pressure
Fault breccia
rock crusted into very fine components
Regional Metamorphism
most metamorphic rocks, makes up shields, extreme heat and pressure, convergent plate boundary
% of Earth's continental surface covered by sedimentary rocks?
75%
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
1.Weathering
2.Transportation
3.Deposition
4.Compaction
5.Lithification
Rock Strata
rock layers
Clast
rock fragment/grain resulting from the breakdown of larger rocks
Sediment Sizes
Boulders: 256mm
Cobbles:64-256mm
Pebble:2-64mm
Sand:0.0625-2mm
Silt:0.002-0.0625
Clay:0.002
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
mineral/biological precipitation mix
Bedding
strata are distinct rock layers that are similar in chracteristics
Cross Bedding
form in any environ. in wind/water flowers and sand/gravel exists on bed of the systems
Graded Bedding
progressive decrease in grain size upward through the bed
Ripple Marks
due to movement in water and mark is left behind in rock
Mud Cracks
occur when water evaporates and mude begins to lose moisture
Alluvial Fans
fan shaped deposits of gravel, sand and mud
Trace Fossils
organisms left evidence that once existed in fossil record
Eolian Environment
Desert
Swamp Environment
humid regions, plant and tree life, still water,
Lacustrine Environment
lake, non-marine water, low energy
Glacial Environment
deposited in glaciers
Marine environment
salt water,ocean
Shoreline Environment
continental edges, wave erode bedrock and soil
Fluvial Environment
flow of continental waterover or through earth's surface ex. river/streams