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42 Cards in this Set

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This drug is indicated for the tx of generalized anxiety disorder
Buspirone (BUSPAR)
Therapuetic Uses of BZD and Diazepam?
Anxiety disorders and muscular disorders, seizures, sleep disorders
Drugs such as meprobamate(MILTOWN) and the barbiturates are not currently used to great extent because why?
They are addictive, not safe, and produce high sedative effects

Antianxiety properties of barbiturates are not equalivant to those exerted by BZD esp. with respect to the degree of sedation that is produced
Using these drugs will decrease tachydardia, muscle tremors and other evidence of increased sympathetic anxiety
Beta blockers
This can be described as a fear or apprehension over some situation or event that the individual feels is threatening
What drugs are most frequently used for tx of anxiety?
This drug has antianxiety and sedative effects and its toxic potential outweighs its benefits
CNS depressant effects are potentiated in combination with what?
These drugs are active orally are long-acting (1-3 days) Intermediate-acting (10-20 hours) and short-acting (3-8 hours) Commited suicide

They are metabolized by the liver and excreted in the urine
BZD Diazepam (VALUM)
The side effects of BZD and Diazepam include.
Abuse potential,CNS depression (drowsiness, ataxia, memory inpairment - decreased long term recall and acquisition of new info.) paradoxial excitement, Jaundice, Dry mouth
These drugs are active orally, distributed widely, can penetrate the CNS due to high degree of lipid solubility, excreted via the kidney after being metabolized in the liver
Duration of Action
Long-acting (1-2 days)
Short-acting (3-8 hours)
Ultra-short acting (20 min)
Addiction to this drug is caused by prolonged use, physiologic changes that may result in tolerance and dependence, and abrupt w/d may be fatal
What are other side effects of Barbituates?
Tolerance, Dependence, w/d symptoms, Drug Hangover, nausea, vomiting, bradycardia, hypotension, hypoventilation
The therapuetic uses of Butabarbital?
Anesthesia, Anticonvulsants, Anxiety disorders, sleep disorders.
Examples of Nonbarbiturate sedatives include...
Chloral hydrate, Antihistamines, Ethanol
Fact or False ?
Most anxiolytics also cause sedation. Some drugs often function clinically as both anxiolytics and hypnotic agents
Examples of this drug include dephenhydramine, and dosylamine. It is a non-prescriptive __________ w/ sedating properties. Used in tx of mild insomnia.
These drugs are used to relax the patient and promote sleep by depressing the CNS in a relatively nonselective, dose-dependent fashion.
At a higher dose, this drug tends to progressively produce calmness or drowsiness (sedation) and to initiate a relatively normal state of sleep (hypnosis).
The prototype of Barbiturates is?
butabarbital (BUTISOL)
The pharmacological actions of these drugs are CNS depression (low doses cause sedation -- high doses cause hypnosis followed by anesthesia --higher doses coma and death) Respiratoy depression, decrease in BP
With Diazepam (VALUM) dependence can occur, what specifically happens?
Psych and physical dep. with chronic administration.
w/d symptoms include confusion, anxiety, agitation, restlessness, insomnia (short acting BZD are more severe and abrupt)
This drug has frequent adverse reactions which include nausea, dizziness, headache, and insomnia
Buspirone (BUSPAR)
What are examples of nonbenzodiazepine antianxiety drugs?
Meprobamate (MILTOWN), Barbiturates, Buspirone (BUSPAR), Beta Blockers
Benzodiazepines are nonbarbituarte sedatives what is the prototype?
diazepam (VALUM)
What are the pharmologial actions of diazepam (VALUM)?
Reduction of anxiety, Sedative and hypnotic actions, Anticonvulsant actions, and muscle relaxation.
What are two examples of nonbenzodiazepine antianxiety drugs?
Buspirone and Beta-adrenergic antagonists
This drug exerts its effect by stimulating the CNS 5 HT receptors, it lacks muscle relaxant, Amnestic, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of BZD.
Buspirone (BUSPAR)
Nonbarbiturate sedatives include?
Chloryl hydrate, Antihistamines, Ethanol, Benzodiazepines (Diazepam -VALUM - prototype)
What do antinxiety drugs do?
Help decrease the tension and nervousness in these circumstances until the situation is resolved of the individual is effectively counseled in other methods of dealing with his or her anxiety.
For maximal performance,which sedative-hypnotics and antianxiety drugs should one consider?
Schedule tx to allow for pt. participation, some form of exercise that requires mental alertness may be dangerous, offer alt. methods of reducing stress and anxiety
These drugs effect the hepatic system by increasing the rate of metabolism of a number of drugs and endogenous substances including steroid hormones, cholesterol, bile salts and vitamin K and D.
Drug Hangover results in...
Complaints of drowsiness and decreased motor preformance the day after admission, subtle distortions of mood and impairment of judgement and fine motor skills may also be demonstrated
What is the prototype for barbiturates?
Butabarbital (Prototype)
Use of what drugs are prevalent esp. in patients undergoing rehab.
Sedative-hypnotics and Anxiolytics
This drug is an effective sedative and hypnotic. It induces sleep in about 30 min and lasts for about 6 hrs. It causes GI side effects such as epigastric distress and unusual and unpleasant taste sensation.
Chloral hydrate
The advantages of this drug over BZD's include..
Does not interact w/alcohol, does not cause dependence or w/d effects

These drugs are CNS depressants that share a common chemical origin from barbituric acid.
What are the effects of w/drawl symptoms in Barbituates?
Tremors, anxiety, weakness, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, seizures, delirum, cardiac arrest, death.
These drugs have a small therapuetic index (10 x therapuetic dose may be fatal) They also have the potential for addiction and drug abuse.
These drugs are effective in controlling acute panic symptoms in indiv. who are required to perform in public or in other anxiey-provoking situations.
Beta blocker