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119 Cards in this Set

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Made up of hundreds of loosely connected states
Holy Roman Empire
_________ and _____________ became the most important states in the HRE
Austria and Prussia
Key word to describe the HRE
Weak
Was at the height of its power in the 1500's
Spain
Spain's power declined due to 2 reason
Spanish Armada defeated in 1588 by England
Economic problems caused by numerous wars
Still controlled many colonies in the
New World
Key word to describe Spain
Declining
Czar of russia
Peter the Great
Tried to modernize his nation
Peter the Great
In spite of Peter's efforts, Russia remained ______
backward
Key word to describe Russia
Backwards
Two events that helped to rbing about this form of government
King Charles I was beheaded
King James I was overthrown in 1688
was called the glorious revolution because
there was no bloodshed
Lawmaking body
Parliament
Key phrase to describe England
powerful nation/limited constitutional monarchy
Had an absolute monarch
France
Monarch alone controls the country
Absolute monarchy
Supposedly said "I am the state"
Louis XIV
"I am the state" means
"I am France"
Had an absolute monarch
France
By the time of his death, France was in terrible financial condition due to
the wars that occured during his rule
his extravagant spending on projects such as Versailles
Key phrases to describe France
Powerful nation/absolute monarchy
From 1775 to 1781 England's 13 colonies in America fought
England
_________ assisted the colonies...Why?
France hated England
The colonies won independence from England-their success inspired
people throughtout the world
Made up of the roman catholic clergy
First Estate
Made up of rich nobles (aristocracy)
second estate
these people were the only ones who could hold high government offivers, become military officers or clergy
second estate
Members of the first and second estate paid
little to no taxes
included the middle class
third class
lawyers, doctors and busninessmen were in this group
Third Estate
At the very bottom of the third estate were the
Peasants
members of the third estate were upset because: 5 reasons
1. They paid almost all the taxes
2. They couldnot become military offivers
3. They could not become clergy
4. The could not hold high government offices and they had no voice in the government
5. Prices were rising steadily but wages rose little or none
The enormous debt of France increased even more when France helped the
thirteen colonies in the American Revolution
In 1786, banks refused to loan additional money to the
French government
Faced with ___________, King Louis the sixteenth called the __________=________ together
bankruptcy, king louis called the Estate-General together
This groups was made up of representatives from each of the
3 estates
____________________ wanted to continue the method of voting used when Estates-General last met
The first two estates
Under this system, there was a total of ____ votes, one from ____ _______
3 votes, one from each estate
The ____ estate opposed this plan
3
The representatives of the 3 estate witdrew from the estates-general and formed the
National Assembly
The representatives of the 3 estate witdrew from the estates-general and formed the
National Assembly
The third estate met at a ______ _____ ________
indoor tennis court
They pledged that they would not stop meeting until _______ had a ___________ ________ ( called the ________ ________ _________)
They pledged that they would not stop meeting until France had a written constitution (called the Tennis Court Oath)
The people feared Louis XVI would use ______ to dismiss the
soldiers to dismiss the National Assembly
This fear was the primary reason thousands of Frenchmen in Paris stormed _ ___
the bastille
Was an old prison where people who criticized the government were sent
Bastille
Was also a arsenal
Bastille
Was a symbol of the unfairness of the Grench government
Bastille
The mob that stormed the bastille expected to find hundreds of prisoners there-instead they found
only a few
_________ ____ is now a national holiday in france
bastille day
equivalent of our fourth of july
bastille day
Shortly after the Bastille was attacked, peasants believed that
nobles planned to murder many of them
peasants burned many
Records of the taxes they owned
one reason for the grench revolution was the influence of the
philosophers
This was also called the age of reason
age of enlightenment
These philosophers wrote about the need for
change in government
National assembly passed the declaration of the rights of man-this document was based on
1.The Enlightenment philosophers ideas
2.U.S. Declaration of Independence
3.U.S. Constitution
4.English Bill of Rights
Declaration of the Rights of Man
1. said all men were free and equal
2. Franted freedom of speech, religion and press
3. Required all three estates to pay taxes
Members of the third estate could now hold
military offices, hold high government positions and become clergy
They forced Louis XVI and his family to move to Paris to prevent the family from trying to stop the
Revolution
The only major European powers remaining were _____ and ______
Britain and Austria
The National Assembly confiscated ____ land and sold it- much to
RCC, much to peasants
The National Assembly adopted the _____________ ___ ______
Constitution of 1791
It made France a _________ ___________ ________
Limited constitutional monarchy
Established a government controlled by the
bourgeoisie
Name for thousands of noblemen that fled France
E'migre's
Many emigres hoped to return to France and _____ the _____________
end the Revolution
Louis and the royal family attempted to flee France-Goal: return later with help of _____ and _____ ________ and _______ the ___________
emigres and foreign governments and destroy the Revolution
_______ were caught and forced to return to Paris
Louis and the royal family
France went to war with _____ and _
Austria and Prussia
These two areas said they wanted to end the French Revolution because they were afraid it would spread to their land
Austria and Prussia
France was _____________ _________ for war
militarily unprepared
Many ________ military officers had fled the ______
French military officers had fled the nation
Slogan of the French Revolution was
"Liberty, Equality and Fraternity"
From Austria
Marie Antoinette
wife of Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette
Resented by many Frenchmen even before the French Revolution
Marie Antoinette
Spent much money from the French treasury for personal pleasures
Marie Antoinette
When told that the people of France had no bread to eat, supposedly replied
Let them eat cake
Louis and his wife were suspected of helping _____ and ________
Austria and Prussia
These couple were killed on the guillotine
Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI
Name the two main political parties of this time
Jacobins and the Girandins
Radical group that wanted more changes
Jacobins
Were satisfied with the changes that had been made
Girandins
The ________ gained control of the government and began a period called the Reign of Terror
Jacobins
What politcal party began the Reign of Terror
Jacobins
The leader of this period in which thousands were executed from all 3 estates
Robespierre, Reign of Terror
in this period, many were executed on minor charges
Reign of Terror
How long did the reign of terror last for?
about a year
This man was overthrown and killed on the guillotine
Robespierre
what continued in France
instability
Born on the island of Corsica
Napoleon
had been aquired by the french shortly before his birth
Corsica
his military victories made him a hero among the French
Napoleon
staged a coup d'itat
napoleon
taking control of a goverment by force
coup d'itat
Napoleon defeated _______,______,______,_______, ______ and severel _________ _________
Austria, Prussia, Spain, Italy, The Netherlands and several smaller nations
soon afterwards, __________ became dictator of France
Napoleon
What ended the French Revolution?
Napoleon becoming the dictator of France
Describe 4 things about napoleon
short
vain/ambitious
military genius
Who invited who for his coronation?
Napoleon invited the Pope
As the ___ was preparing to crown _____, ___ crowned
pope was preparing to crown Napoleon, Napoleon crowned himself
Napoleon crowned his wife, _________ what?
Emporess Josephine
Who married Marie Louis?
Napoleon
daughter of the austrian emperor
marie louis
why did napoleon divorce josephine
becuase he had no heir
One of the greatest accomplishments of Napoleon was what?
The Napoleonic Code
this revised and organized French laws
the napoleonic code
French laws were unclear and confusing partly due to the
changes during the French Revolution
British fleet under Admiral _______ ________ destroyed half of the French fleet in 1805
Horatio Nelson
________ was killed during battle
Nelson
Because of the loss of ships, _________ was forced to abandon his plans to invade ________
Napoleon, England
Napoleon started the continental system
economic warefare
Definition-Napoleon attempted to keep
british gods from entering European parts by setting up a blockade
What was Napoleon's goal in terms of the blockade?
to hurt England economically
How did England respond to Napoleon's blockade?
They set up a blockade against France
Trade of _______ countries was especially hurt by the blockades set up by these two countries
neutral
During this time, the _______ _______ declared war on England partly due to this problem
United States