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60 Cards in this Set

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#1- Renaissance (Italian: rinascita)
Georgio Vasari used the word rinascita to describe the sixteenth century. The renaissance artists thought their intellectual thought was linked directly to the Greek and Roman Empires, but the middle ages had a great affect on the way they thought. Our modern notion of individualism started during the renaissance era. These new ideas eventually were spread throughout Europe because of the printing press in what was known as the Northern renaissance movement.
#2- Medici Family
After the Ciompi Revolt, the governemnts changes in most of the city-states. Venice and Florence, however, stayed as republics but were mostly dominated by a few wealthy families, most notably the Medici Family. They used their wealth to eventually become dukes of the city.
#3- Humanism
Humanism is characterized by a form of study based on what students in the classical world would have studied. Francesco Petrarch is the father of Humanism. He learned a lot about classical Latin and read many original documents, instead of having the midieval latin education. One of his goals was to write in Cicerean style. He never denied Christianity, but said that the Pagan Classical beliefs could be tied into Modern Christianity beliefs. Lorenzo Valla began to notice that the language in itself could tell us about history. he noticed that some documents were written well after their time. Women later learned to read amd write also and they began to publish some of their works.
#4- Petrarch
Petrarch was considered the father of Humanism. He was a lawyer but grew tired of this and started to study literary classics. He was the first to say that the cultural decline after the fall of the Roman Empires was the "Dark Ages".Petrarch learned classical Latin so that he could read the original texts from the that time. He set out to find Roman works and found works like the letters of Cicero. He then tried to become the same style of writer as Cicero and so did his followers. He was accused of being Pagan but said that, although the Anciant ideas were pagan, that some of there ideas were applicable to Cristianity. Many people followed in Petrarch's steps and some based their thoughtss off his beliefs.
#5- Civic Humanists
A small group of wealthy Flourinists, called Civic Humanists, like Petrarch's ideas. they took it farther by studying classical Greek and the wirtings of the genius Plato. In Pico della Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of man. These civic humanists greatly influenced the renaissance.
#6- Plato
Plato was the ancient Greek philosopher who believed that ideals such as beauty and or thruth exist beyond the ability of our senses to recognize them, and that we can train our minds to make use of our ability to reason and thus get beyond the limits of our senses.
#7- Pico della Mirandola
He recorded the positive Platonic view of human potential is found in one of the most famous passages from the renaissance, Oration on the Dignity of Man
#8- Castiglione
In Castiglione's The Courtier(1528), Castiglione described the ideal image of a man by saying they should know several languages, was familiar with the classical literature and was skilled in the arts.
#9- Lorenzo Valla
Valla was on of the critical experts in the area of textual analysis. He worked in the Vatican libraries and realized that launguages themselves can help discover history. In the Donation of Constantine, he discovered that Constatine had not actually written this because the word fief was used and that word wasn't invented until 400 years after Constantine's death. he also read the Vulgate Bible, or the common Latin Bible, and discovered that the author, Jerome, had mistranslated some key texts.
#10- Women in the Renaissance
Many of the wealthy women began to learn how to read and write and Leonardo Bruni even went as far as making a school system for them, leaving out of his curriculum the public speech edecation because they had no use of this.
#11- Contrast Medieval and Renaissance Art
Renaissance artists were now thought to be inportant people within their own right whereas in the middle ages, they toiled as anonymous craftsmen. In the Middle Ages, Frescoes were the dominant technique, but in Renaissance time oil paintings were used. Renaissance artists also began to use the technique chiaroscura, or the contrast between lights and darks to make 3-D images. The most important artistic discovery was the use of single-point perspective.
#12- High Renaissance
At the end of the Fifteenth Century, Rome replaced Florence as the center of artistry. This marked the beginning of the movement of the High Renaissance. The Popes wanted to make their city more Beautiful. Art started to change and it depicted distorted and confused shapes.
#13- Raphael
Raphael was loved by all and is famous for the painting: The School of Athens. he also made inportant contributions to the Vatican with his pictures of Jesus and Mary.
#14- Leonardo Da Vinci
He was an engineer, architect, sculptor, scientist, and an inventor. his sketch books reveal an incredible mind that came up with wirkable designs for helicopters and submarines. He was also a painter. He painted the Mona Lisa.
#15- Michaelangelo
Michelangelo was also skilled im many ways. His sculpture, David, was commisioned by Florence as propoganda to inspire the citizens in their overwhelming struggle with Milan. Four different Popes commisioned him, including Julius II, who made him paint the Cistene chapel and design the popes grave. He lived through the High Renaissance and the late Renaissance
#16- Northern Renaissance
By the late fifteenth century, Italian Renaissance Humanism had began to effect the North. Paramount in the North though was the questions about Christianity. Most people were still trying to further their understanding of God. Writers like Erasmus and More began to critisize their Church, but people like Martin Luther were finding ways to better the church instead of critisize it.
#17- Christain Humanism
Writers such as Erasmus and More became known as Christain Humanists, who were trying to better the church. To their horror, people like Martin Luther used their methodology but didn't want to better the church, he wanted to justify why it was bad.
#18- Erasmus
Erasmus was the greatest Northern Humanist. He wrot many books trying to sway the beliefs of the Catholic church. At first Erasmus liked Luther's opinions against the church. But soon they began to clash because Erasmus wanted to reform the Church, not abandon it. He also believed in free will, unlike Luther.
#19- Sir Thomas More
Sir Thomas More also wrote books to try and reform the church, but in the end he was beheaded for not admitting that Henry VIII was the head of the church.
#20- Albrecht Durer
He was a northern artists who made his own unique style and his woodcuts powerfully lent support to his fellow German Martin Luther.
#21- William Shakespeare
The greatest achievement in arts came in England during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This was the emergence of great writers such as William Shakespeare, who was the master of the English language. He only had a primary education but ended up writing plays such as Hamlet ans King Lear.
#22- Johannes Gutenberg
He is given the credit as the first to ever print using moveable type. He produced 200 bibles that were as ornate as any handwritten one. The significant increase in lliteracy in the sixteenth cetury helps to say that few inventions have had such an impact.
#23- Influence of Renaissance on Reformation
In the year 1500 christianity was the predominant religion. then, because of the protestant reformation, there was a great split in Western christaindom. This movement dethroned the pope as the single religious athority in the church. The Northern Renaissance had some part in this breaking away because people started questiong Catholic teachings. Also the Printing press alowwed the common people to read the Bible and decide for thenselves how they should interperet it.
#24-Problems in the Curch
The sixteenth-century reformation started because the church was facing a number of problems. The black plague, which had significantly reduced the population of Europe. many people were blaming it on the clergymen for not being very good. This belief was called anticlericalism. Then the church was further damaged by the Great Schism. Another problem was uneducated lower-class clergy men who all held different positions so they couldn't teach the people very weel. Simony was also a considerable problem. Many people questioned the church and ebgan to start movements including Jan Hus and John Wycliffe. Hus said that the people should also recieve the cup and wafers. He went to the Council of Constance and was promised safe passage. He was actually burnt at the stake.
#25- Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales reveals some of the satirical edge with which society now greeted clergy men.
#26- Great Schism
this furthered the damage down to the Curch during the fourteenth century becauseit resulted in three different popes excommunicating each other.
#27- Pietism
This was the notion of the individual having a direct relation to god which greatly diminished the power and need of the Heriarchial Church.
#28- John Wycliffe
Wycliffe questioned the wordly wealth of the church, the miracle of transubstantiation, the teaching of penance, and the selling of indulgences. Wycliffe urged his followers to interperet the Bible for themselves and even translated it to make it easier.
#29- Jan Hus (AKA John Huss)
In Bohemia, Jan Hus led a revolt that combined religious and nationalistic ideals. He said that it was the Bible and not the institutional church that ultimately mattered. He was disgusted by the clergy just like John Wycliffe. he argued that the people should be able to have the cup and the wafer. he was called before the council of Constantine in 1415 and was promised safe passage, but then was bunt at the stake as a heretic. His followers revolted and that took many years to put down.
#30- Indulgences
The selling of indulgences began during the crusades when the church got the knights to go on crusades by releasing them from purgatory. Eventually after the crusades had ended the church sold indulgences as a means to fill it's treasury. In 1517 Albert of Hohenzollern was granted the place of Archbishop of Mainz, but he had to raise 10,000 Ducats. He turned to the great banking family of the age- The Fuggers. To pay off his debt the papacy granted him the right to preach indulgences with half of the money going to Rome. Johann Tetzel was sent to preach indulgences thrughout Germany using hte line " As soon as gold in the basin rings, the soul to heaven rings".
#31- Martin Luther and the 95 Theses
Luther was horrified by this practice, and he posted his 95 theses on the wall on the wall of the church. He soom printed these and spread them throughout Germany. The papcy tried to disregard Luther, but he soo gathered many followers. luther then was accused of being a follower of Jan Hus and he said that Hus was wrongly condemned. In 1520, Luther spent the year writing three political tracts: he urged that the secular government had the right to reform the church in his Address to the Crhistain Nobility. He attacked other teachings of the church such as the sacraments in his On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church. In Libert of a Christain man, he hit on what would become the basic elements of the Lutheran belief. He was placed before a council in which he denied the holy Roman Emperor and they banished him from the Empire but he stayed there to found the Lutheran church.
#32- Johann Tetzel
Tetzel was a Dominican Friar who was told to preach about Indulgences throughout Germany. He used the line "As soon as gold in the basin rings, the soul in heaven rings".
#33- Diet of Worms
the Diet of Worms was a gathering of the German nobility in which Martin Luther was asked, bye Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, if he rebuked his ideas. He got up and said "Unless I am convicted by scripture adn plain reason-I do not accept the authority fo popes and councils, for they contradicted each other-my conscience is captive to the word of God: I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me Amen."
#34- Sacraments
Luther and his friend, Philip Melancthon, decided to make their own church free from Papal Authority. Intstead of the seven sacraments, he reduced them to two- baptism and communion.
#35- Celibacy
Luther did away with monasticism and insisted on the celibacy of the Clergy.
#36- Three Reasons the Reformation succeeded
One reason the Reformation succeeded was that it didn't threaten existing social orders and the people liked that. The peasants also took his ideals and used them as a reason to revolt against the existing givernment in which Luther was disgusted. luther didn't interfere with the German Princes and in fact encouraged them to take teh Churches land.
#37- German Peasants Revolt of 1525
The revolt was a result of worsening economic conditions among peasants. They belived that Luther's call for a priesthood of all believers was a message of social egalitarianism. This idea disgusted Luther and he called for all revoltuions to be brutally brought down.
#38- Priesthood of all Believers
This was the reason the peasants revolted because they thought that this meant social egalitarianism.
#39- Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
When he became successor to the throne he faced adversity from the king of France, Francis the I. Charles made enough money to bribe the authorities, he was unable to effectively control his empire. Charles had many struggle and had to fight the powerful Ottoman Empire, and some of the German Princes. He eventually had to sign the Treaty of Augsburg which allowed States with a Lutheran leader to be Lutheran and states with a Catholic leader to be Catholic.
#40- Peace of Aupsburg, 1555
Charles V eventually had to sign the Treaty of Augsburg which allowed States with a Lutheran leader to be Lutheran and states with a Catholic leader to be Catholic.
#41- Anabaptists
One group during the Radical Reformation was the anabaptists who believed that infant baptism was wrong and oyu had to be grown for it to count. Eventually they were wiped out by Lutherans and Catholics.
#42- Ulrich Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli's teachings were much like Luther's but for some differences. Zwingli denied all sacraments and the last supper was a memorial of Christ's death. He called for social reform and died leading his Zurch army against the Cathilics.
#43- John Calvin
Calvin believed that grace was bestowed on few individuals and that we didn't have free will. He tried to make Geneva Switzerland the new Jerusalem. Calvinism became the main religion in Scotland and it is said that it was the reason the Protestant Reformation succeeded because the Catholics foceused on Calvinism.
#44- Predestination
This was the belief that all humans beings had a predestined fate and we had free will because God was all powerful.
#46- Henry VIII
king Henry was a Catholic and he didn't like Lutherans. the reformation started with the Kings Great Matter, which involved the King's attempt to divorce his Spanish wife Catherine of Aragon. He got an annulment and in the process fell in love with Anne Boleyn. he wouldn't be with him unless he made her queen. They would not give him the annulment so he reformed Parlaiment and gave himself religious authority. HE got Anne pregnant and had to end his marraige with Catherine. He cut off the constitutional links withe the Pope and parlaiment made the Act of Restraint of Appeals and he became the jury for all spiritual cases. He then was legally divorced and married and Anne's child was a girl. He ended up marrying six wifes and got one boy. Then the Raformation was capped off by the Act of Supremacy which made the King the head of the church of England.
#47- Catherine of Aragon
Catherine was the King Henry VIII's first wife. She wasn't producing any sons so Henry VIII wanted to divorce her. This led to the King declaring his independence from the church and forming the Church of England.
#48- Anne Boleyn
During his annulment to get a divorce from Catherine, Henry fell in love with Anne Boleyn. She refused to sleep with him unless he made her the Queen. When the annulment didn't happen Henry started the Reformation parlaiment which helped to make him the supreme religious ruler. He bribed Anne into sleeping with him and in three months she was pregnant. He then secretly married her even though he was still married to Catherine. If Henry was going to avoid bigamy he had eight months to end his marraige to Catherine. He then severed constitutional ties to the papacy. Parlaiment then passed the Act in Restraint of Appeals. This said that all religious cases in the kingdom were under the jurisdiction of the King. Then he met before a England church congregation and they said his marraige to Catherine was null and Anne was his lawful wedded wife.
#45- Huguenots
Huguenots was the term the French used for Calvinists who had a minority population in France.
#49- Act of Supremecy
In 1534, the English Reformation was capped off by the Act of Supremecy, which acknowledges the King of England as the supreme leader of what became known as the Church of England. Henry wanted to create a Catholic Church without the primacy of the pope. He closed all monastaries and confiscated the lands but the tide of change was very great and hard to overcome.
#50- The Church of England
The church of England was basically a Catholic church without the influence and rule of the Pope. The King of England was the supreme ruler.
#51- Edward VI
Edward was succeeded Henry and face many problems so he had a short reign. He tried to institute Protestant ideas into the Church of England. He only reigned for six years.
#52- Mary Tudor
Mary Tudor, or Bloody Mary, succeeded Edward and also had a very short reign. Mary tried to bring England back into the Catholic Church. She succeeded in getting contact with the papacy but the people still had protestant beliefs. To stop this she allowed for the killing od hundreds of Englishmen which got her her nickname.
#53- Elizabeth I
Elizabeth was the successor of Mary and it was under her rule that religious stability first came about in England.
#54- Catholic Reformation/ Counter Reformation
The Catholic Church tried to counter the Protestant Reformation by taking several steps. They created the Index of Prohibited Books which banned writing from people like Erasmus and Galileo. Non believers were burned or executed. The centerpiece was the Council of Trent. This gave the Papacy more power and educated the clergymen much better. They also placed limits on the selling of church offices.
#55- Index of Prohibited Books
The Catholic Church took many steps to counter the Reformation and one of them was to create the Index of Prohibited Books which banned works by certain writers such as Erasmus and Galileo.
#56- Inquisition
This was another step taken by the Catholic Church. This was a medieval institution and all heretics were put to death.
#57- Council of Trent
The centerpiece of the Reformation was the Council of Trent. This gave the Papacy more power and educated the clergymen much better. They place limits on the selling of church offices. teh council also erged that a more religious style of art be invented instead of the mannerist style which then lead to the creation of Boroque style art.
#58- Boroque Art
The Council of Trent urged that a more religious style of art be invented instead of the mannerist style which then lead to the creation of Boroque style art.
#59- Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
The greatest reason the counter reformation succeeded was because of the founding of the Society of Jesus or the Jesuits who were organized by Ignatius Loyola. Loyola was much like Luther in that he attempted to recomcile himself to God through austere behavior. He didn't agree with Luther that the Bible was the sole source of faith, but said that even without the Bible there was still the spirit. The Jesuits were at first watched by the papacy but then in a papal bull in 1540 the Jesuits were accepted as an official order of the Catholic Church. They then became distinguished as teachers and they started missionaries in places where Lutheranism had great power.
#60- Ignatius Loyola
Ignatius Loyala was the founder of the Jesuit order of priests or the Society of Jesus. He beleived that even without the Bible we still had spiritual faith.