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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the Hasmonean King who conquered Idumaea?
John Hyrcanus

Ruled from 134-104 BCE

Allowed the Jews to return from the Babylonian captivity
What was the Cyrus Declaration
Allowed the Jews to return from the Babylonian Captivity.
What happended to the Jews after the Destruction of the First Temple 9 Av 586 BCE?
Some Jews were exiled toe Babylonia, others remained in Judah and some fled to Egypt.
What important event occurred in 458 BCE?
Ezra the Scribe arrived in Judea.
Elephantine was?
A Jewish community that built a temple on an island in the Nile River.
The Persian King Darius I divided this empire into satraps. Jdea was the 5th that was called?
Abar Nahara - icluded Palestine and Syria.
The leaders who oled the Return to Zion after the Persian conquest of Babylon were:
Sheshbazzar and Zerubavel
Where was John the Baptist beheaded?
Who succeeded direly afer Herod the Great and ruled in Jerusalem?
His son Archeleus
Name dcouments that described the economic life in Judea and Idumaea from the mid third century.
Zeno Papyri
What important battle occurred in 198 BCE?
The Battle of Paneas

Antiochus III managed to defeat Egypt at the Battle of Paneas (198 BC) and Palestine and Syria henceforth were part of the Seleucid kingdom.
10 agorah coin
Parts of the Mattathias Antigonus coin appear on what coin today?
The generals who succeeeded Alexander the Great are referred to as?
The Diodochi

In general, EHandler: no quick summary. Follow link. (the word Diadochi means "successors" in Greek, EHandler: no quick summary. Follow link. (such that the neoplatonic refounders of Plato's Academy Academy quick summary:
An academy is an institution for the study of higher learning....

[For more, click on this link] in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). Specifically, EHandler: no quick summary. Follow link. (the Diadochi were the rival successors to Alexander the Great[For more, click on this link], EHandler: no quick summary. Follow link. (and the Wars of the Diadochi followed Alexander's death. This was the beginning of the so-called Hellenistic[For more facts and a topic of this subject, click this link] period of Greek history, EHandler: no quick summary. Follow link. (the time when many people who were not Greek themselves adopted Greek philosophy and styles, EHandler: no quick summary. Follow link. (Greek city life and aspects of Greek religion.
After the Battle of Actium what happened to Herod?
He was summoned to Rhodes to meet with Octavius (Caesar Augustus)

The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between Mark Antony and Octavian (Caesar Augustus). It was fought on September 2, 31 BC, near the Roman colony of Actium in Greece
Who issued the Edict of Persecution?
Antiochus IV

in 167 BC resulted in the killing of thousands of Jews who refused to abandon their ancient customs, and in the defiling of the Jerusalem Temple,
Hanukah can be dated to?
164 BCE
Who was Phasael?
Herod the Great's brother.
Who was the leader of the extreme reform party who opposed the Maccabees?
The Sacarii were?
A sect that was know as assassins. Sacarii is a short dagger.
Where is the origin of the Samaritans?
Descendents of the Northern tribes who consider Mt. Grezim as their holiest site.
The Great Revolt 66-73 BCE started as a result of?
A Roman ban on circumcision

The proximate cause was a series of acts by the procurator Gessius Florus (64‑66 C.E.) which displayed disrespect for Jew­ish religious sensibilities. Widespread strife broke out in Jeru­salem, and, as a consequence, some of the priests decided to suspend the offering on behalf of the emperor, an action tanta­mount to declaring open revolt.
Mattathias began the Maccabean Revolt at?
Name the Roman Governor of Syria defeated at Beit Horon by the Israelis in 66 CE at the beginning of the Great Revolt
Cestius Gallus
Josephus escaped from what fortified town and turned himself over to the Romans?

At the beginning of the war between the Romans and Jews, Josephus was made commander of Galilee, despite the fact that he had opposed the uprising. He surrendered to the Romans instead of committing suicide when the stronghold was taken.
Where has Herod the Great buried - according to Josephus?

No evidence of this has been found there to date.
Who were the Tobiads and where did they live?
They were enemies of Nehemia;
Tax Collectors for the Ptolemies; and

Iraq el Amir
Qesar el Abid

Sources: Book of Nehemiah, Zenon Papyri and Josephus
What Jewish leader practices forced conversion of conquered populations as part of his policy?
John Hyrcanus 134-104 BCE

He is credited with the forced conversion of the Idumeans to Judaism

Source: 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees,
How was Herod Agrippa I related to Herod the Great?
He was son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great. He ruled from 37-44 CE.
Did Ezra and Nehemia predate Sheshbazzar and Zerubavel?

Sheshbazzar and Zerubavel are two of the most prominent leaders of the return to Zion that began in 536 B.C.E. and are referred to in the Book of Ezra
After the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, was Masada was the only remaining Jewish stronghold?

Herodion and Macherus were also Jewish strongholds at the time.
Most historians concur that Alexander the Great visited Jerusalem after the conquest of Egypt
Was Herodion a rebuilt fortress?
Locations of 7 synogogues that were standing at the time of the Second Temple
Gamla (Golan)
Kiryat Sefer
Under whose rule was the Second Temple destroyed?
Titus in 70 CE

Thus ending the Second Temple Period.
Name 4 Second Temple Sects - their main beliefs

[According to Josephus and Philo]
Pharisees: Both written and oral law - were one of the successor groups of the Hasidim (the "pious"), an anti-Hellenic Jewish movement that formed in the time of the Seleucid king, Antiochus Epiphanes (175–163 BCE). Was reestablished as Rabbinic Judaism. Believe in resurrection

Sadducees:Only written Torah. Conservative and Aristocratic priestly class.

Essenes: Small monastic community observed the laws of Moses, ritual purity and Shabbat - Denied resurrection -May have comprised Qumran community.

Zealots: Political movement to rebell against and expell the Romans. Leaders in Great Revolt of 66-73 CE..ollowed John of Gischala... see Sacarii
Name three people in Herod the Great's family that had edifaces hames after them:
Phasael Tower (Tgower of David)

Cypros Fortress (near Jericho)

Mariamme Tower (Jerusalem)
Name three (3) Hasmonean fortresses
1. Dok
2. Jericho
3, Masada
Make a timetable from from Cyrus to Destruction of the Second Temple - with dates and 4 Sub periods
Persian Period - 539-332 BCE
538 BCE Cyrus II Declaration -
Hellenistic - 332-167 BCE
Alexander the Great Conquers Israel
198 BCE Battle of Paneas
Hasmonean - 167-63 BCE
Mattithiyahu begins revolt in Modi'in
Roman Period - 63 BCE -
70 CE - Destruction of Temple
Name the members of the Hasmonean Dynasty (recognized by Rome in 139 BCE)
Simon 142- 135 BCE
John Hyrcanus 135-104 (son of Simon)
Aristobulus 104-103 [son of Hyrcanus - only Priest]
Alexander Jannaeus [brother of Aristobulus] 103-76
Alexandra [wife of Alexander] 76-67
Aristobulus II [son of Alexandra] 67-63
John Hyrancus II [Ethnarch - real rule byu Antipaterthe Idumean] 63-40
The Dynasties in Egypt and Syria during after the death of Alexander the Great
The Seleucids in Syria

The Ptolomies in Egypt.

The Ptolomies lose the Battle of Paneas in 198 BCE giving control of Palesine to the Seleucids.
List Herod the Great's Building Projects in and outside Jerusalem
Jerusalem: Antonia Fortress, Hasmonean Palace rebuilt, Royal Palace, three towers - Phasaelis, Hippicus, Mariamme, family tomb [north of Damascus Gate]. Temple, Theatre, Amphitheatre, Hippodrome.
Aqueducts and Reservoirs: Solomon’s Pools, Pool of Mamillah, Hezekiah’s Pool
In his Territory: Alexandreion Fortress, Hyrcania Fortrress – refortified Palace, Masada – Fortification, palaces, synagogue, baths, cistern, pools and gardens, Machaerus fortified palace, Cypros - fortified palace, Dok Fortress, Caesarea – harbor, amphitheatre, hippodrome, aqueducts…, Zippori – palace, Jericho – palaces, hippodrome, aqueducts…Sabaste (Samaria) – temple, theatre…, Panias – Temple ….also at…Ashkelon, Afek (Antipatris), Tell Qasille, Keren Naftali, Ein Boqeq…etc.
Wives of Herod
Doris Mariamme I Mariamme II Malthace Cleopatra Pallas, Phaedra and Elpis
Father and Mother of Herod
Father - Antipater the Idumaean

Mother - Cypros
Herod's successors
After Herod's death, his kingdom was divided between three of his sons, namely Archelaus, Herod Antipas, and Herod Philip, who however ruled only as tetrarchs rather than kings.
Name the central streets of the classic Roman city
The Cardo (“axis” running north-south) and Decamanus (east-west main street) form the main streets and focal axis of the typical Roman city.
Literary works during the Second Temple Period
Pliny the Elder
Who was Cestius Gallus
Governor of Syria appointed by Emperor Nero in 64 CE.

He lead the XII Legion into Israel to put down revolt and was repelled at Jerusalem and defeated at Beit Horon
Elephantine Papyri
A collection of archives (known as the Elephantine Papyri)dated from 525 BCE mostly written in Aramaic, and some in Hieratic and Demotic also, provided extensive documentation for life within this Jewish community. The archives are concerned with diverse matters of the community; i.e. political, legal, social, economic, and religious. Some documents belonged to members of the Aramean garrison were also found at Syene.
he letter of Aristeas
here are only two documents that relate to dating the settlement of the Jewish garrison at Elephantine. The first one is the Letter of Aristeas, which scholars believe to have been written in the second century B.C. The letter documents the Greek translation of the Pentateuch in Alexandria. Also documented are historic events and circumstances that relate to the emigrations of Jews into Egypt. It is mentioned on a certain part of the letter that Jews “had been sent to Egypt to help it’s king Psammetichus in his campaign against the king of the Ethiopians (Nubians).
Pontius Pilate
Tiberius Caesar, who succeeded Augustus in AD 14, appointed Pontius Pilate as governor of Judea in 26 AD. Pilate arrived and made his official residence in Caesarea Maritima, the Roman capital of Judea. Pilate was the 5th procurator of Judea.
Name three opponents of Nehemiah
Sanballat, the governor of Samaria, aided by

Tobiah, the ruler of Ammon, and

Gashmu an Arab chieftain, c