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71 Cards in this Set

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Phylum Chordata
Phylum Chordata-chordates
Subphylum Cephalochordata-lancelets
Subphylum Urochordata-tunicates
Subphylum Vertebrata
Chordates
A notochord, pharyngeal pouches, a dorsal tubular nerve cord, and a postanal tail are all present at some time in the life history.
notochord
a dorsal supporting rod extending the length of the body. The notochord is replaced during development by a vertebral column in the vertebrates
dorsal tubular nerve cord
In vertebrates, the nerve cord, more often called the spinal cord, is protected by the vertebrae.
Pharyngeal pouches
which become fuctioning gills in the invertebrate chordates, the fishes, and amphibian larvae. In terrestrial animals, the pouches are modified for various other functions.
post-anal tail
as an embryo if not as an adult; a tail that extends beyond the anus
Subphylum Urochordata
Contains tunicates, or sea squirts. These animals come in varying sizes and shapes, but all have incurrent and excurrent siphons. Gill slits are the only remaining chordate characteristic in adult tunicates.
Subphylum Cephalochordata
Lancelets, which are also known as amphioxus (Branchiostoma) are small fishlike animals that occur in shallow marine waters in most parts of the world. They spend most of their time buried in the sandy bottom, with only the anterior end projecting.
Lancelets
feed on microscopic particles filtered out of the constant stream of water that enters the mouth and exits through the gill slits into an atrium that opens at the atriopore.
fins of Lancelets
caudal fins(enlarged tail) is used in locomotion, the dorsal fin, and the short ventral fin
oral hood
entrance of water
atriopore
water exits
Vertebrates
are segmented, and specialization of parts has occurred. Vertebrates have an endoskeleton, but they have jointed appendages. In vertebrates two pairs of appendages are characteristic. The vertebrate brain is more complex than that of arthropods and enclosed by a skull. A high degree of cephalization. All organ systems are present and efficient.
The Vertebrates classification
SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATE
Superclass Agnatha
Superclass Gnathostomata
Class Chondrichthyes
Class Osteichthyes
Class Amphibia
Class Reptilia
Class Aves
Class Mammalia
SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA
Notochord replaced by vertebrae that protect the nerve cord; skull that protects the brain; segmented with jointed appendages:Vertebrates
Superclass Agnatha
Marine and freshwater fishes; lack jaws and paired appendages; cartilaginous skeleton; notochord:lampreys and hagfishes
Superclass Gnathostomata
Hinged jaws; paired appendages; jawed fishes and all tetrapods
Class Chondrichthyes
Marine cartilaginous fishes; lack operculum and swim bladder; tail fin usually asymmetrical:sharks, skates, and rays
Class Osteichthyes
Marine and freshwater bony fishes; operculum; swim bladder or lungs; tail fin usually symmetrical:lungfishes, lobe-finned fishes, and ray-finned fishes (herring, salmon, sturgeon, eels, sea horse)
Class Amphibia
Tetrapod with nonamniotic egg; nonscaly skin; some show metamorphosis; three-chambered heart; ectothermic:urodeles (salamanders,newts) and anurans (frogs, toads)
Class Reptilia
Tetrapod with amniotic egg; scaly skin; extothermic:squamata (snakes,lizards) chelonians (turtles,tortoises)
Class Aves
Tetrapod with feathers;bipedal with wings;double circulation;endothermic:sparrows,penguins and ostriches
Class Mammalia
Tetrapods with hair, mammary glands; double circulation; endothermic; teeth differentiated:monotremes (spiny anteater, duckbill platypus), marsupials (opossum,kangaroo), and placental mammals (whales, rodents,dogs,cats,elephants,horses,bats,humans)
Frogs
are amphibians, a group of animals in which metamorphosis occurs. Metamorphosis includes a change in structure, as when an aquatic tadpole becomes a frog wiht lungs and limbs. Amphibians were the first vertebrates to be adapted to living on land; however, they typically return to the water to reproduce.
Frogs eyes
bulging eyes, which have a nonmovable upper and lower lid but can be covered by a nictitating membrane that serves to moisten the eye.
nares
nostril
Auditory (eustachian) tube
equalize air pressure in the ears
Frogs teeth
maxillary teeth-rim of the upper jaw
vomerine teeth- behind the midportion of the upper jaw
symbiosis
a close relationship; that may occur when two organisms of different species live together
three types of symbiotic relationships
mutualism- postive relationship

commensalism- good for symbiont, nothing for host

parasitism- good for symbiont, bad for host
Mutualism
a relationship in which both organisms benefit from the association

these relationships often help organisms obtain food or avoid predation
Mutualistic relationships...examples
bacterium Rhizobium invades the roots of certain leguminous plants (clover, alfalfa, soybeans) and it forms nodules.

lichen has alga or cyanobacterium and fungus that make it

termites have zooflagellates (Trichonympha and Pyrsonympha) which digest the wood that termites eat.

Ants are provided shelter by the Acacias and ants protect the plant from herbivorous insects
Lichens
are composed of a fungus and either an alga or a cyanobacterium growing in intimate association
Lichen types
crustose
foliose
fruticose
crustose
appressed to a substratum...are compact
foliose
leaflike lobes
fruticose
erect or pendant branching structures...are shrublike
nectaries
plant glands that secrete nectar at the base of the leaves
beltian bodies
ants eat nodules at some of the leaf tips of Acacias
commensalism
is a relationship between two species in which only one of the species benefits; the other neither benefits nor is harmed
commensalism...examples
epiphyte
epiphyte
plants that grow on other plants
parasitism
a relationship between two species in which one species-the parasite-derives nourishment from the other-the host.
viruses are...
obligate parasites because they are incapable of reproducing on their own. When a virus invades a cell, it takes over the cell's metabolic machinery and causes the cell to reproduce more viruses.
genus Plasmodium
organisms in the genus cause malaria in humans.

Members of this genus have no means of locomotion and are dispersed by infected mosquitoes.
free living worm
1.well developed nervous system
2. sense organs, such as eyes
3. fast moving, with protective devices
4. well developed muscles
5. efficient circulatory system
6. normal reproduction
parasitic worm
1. reduced nervous system
2. sense organs, such as touch
3. limited locomotion
4. minimal muscle fiber
5. reduced circulatory system
6. complicated life cycle
tapeworms
are parasitic flatworms that live in the intestines of vertebrate animals.

they consist of scolex (head), suckers/hooks, proglottids (segments of the body)
schistosomiasis
any of a genus (Schistosoma) of elongated trematode worms with the sexes separate that parasitize the blood vessels of birds and mammals and cause a disease in humans
roundworms
have a smooth outside wall, indicating that they are not segmented. They are usually small and occur in great numbers in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. roundworms are freeliving
Trichinella
is a parasitic roundworm that causes the disease trichinosis. humans eat raw or undercooked pork infected with Trichinella cysts, the young worms are released in the digestive tract and mature to reproduce sexually, producing other juvenile worms that form cysts in human muscle. humans with this have muscular aches and pains that can lead to death if the respiratory muscles fail.
hookworm
is in human feces and passes from human to human through the feces
pollutants
are substances added to the environment that lead to undesierable effects for all living things.
Eutrophication
a process where bodies of water undergo a natural enrichment
5 Mechanisms of Microevolution
Gene Flow
Genetic Drift
Non-random mating
Mutations
Natural Selection
Hardy-Weinberg equation
1 = p2 + 2pq + q2

op=% of Dominant Allele in the population
oq=% of Recessive Allele in the population
op2= % of the homozygous dominant
oq2= % of the homozygous recessive
o2pq= % of population heterozygous
Macroevolution "Evidences"
Fossil Record
Comparative Anatomy
forelimbs
chimp vs human
embryos
Biochemical
Antibodies
chemicals made by immune system to react with antigens
Antigens
chemicals made by cells that stimulate immune system to make antibodies
Ecology layers
Population
Community
Ecosystem=community and abiotics
Ecosystem components
abiotics
producers
consumers
herbivores
carnivores
omnivores
decomposers
Producers
autotrophic organisms with the ability to carry on photosynthesis and to make food for themselves
Consumers
heterotrophic organisms that eat available food

herbivores-feed directly on green plants...primary consumers

carnivores-feed on other animals...secondary consumers

omnivores- feed on both plants and animals
Decomposers
are organisms of decay, such as bacteria and fungi, that break down detritus (nonliving organic matter) to inorganic matter
Life Cycle of Plasmodium
1. In the gut of female mosquito, gametes fuse, and the zygote undergoes many divisions to produce sporozoites, which migrate to her salivary gland.

2. When the mosquito bites a human, the sporozoites pass from the mosquito salivary glands into the bloodstream and then the liver of the host.

3. Merozoites produced in liver cells enter the bloodstream and then the red blood cells.

4. When the red blood cells rupture, spores innvade and reproduce asexually inside new red blood cells.

5. Spores and toxins pour into the bloodstream when the red blood cells rupture.

6. Some spores become male and female gametocytes, which enter the bloodstream. If taken up by a mosquito, they become gametes.
tapeworms
Phylum Platyhelminthes

Class Cestoda

Taenia pisiformis-dog tape
Taenia saginata- beef tape
Taenia solium-pork tape
Life cycle of Taenia
1. Each larva becomes a bladder worm encysted in muscle.
2. meat contains many bladder worms
3. Humans eat meat
4. Bladder worm attaches to human intestine
Flukes
Phylum Platyhelminthes

Class Trematoda

blood fluke: Schistosoma mansoni
Life Cycle of the blood fluke
1. Adult worms live and copulate in blood vessels of human; eggs mirgrate into digestive tract.
2. eggs passed in feces
3. miracidia hatch in water and enter snail
4. mother sporocyst encloses many developing daughter sporocysts
5. daughter sporocyst encloses many developing cercariae
6. cercariae break out of daughter sporocysts, escape snail, and invade humans
body shapes of male/female flukes
male= shorter and flatter
female=round, long, slender
roundworms
Phylum Nematoda

Trichinella spiralis

Necator Americanus

Rhabditis