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71 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
haploid
having only one set of chromosomes
zygote
fertilized egg cell
homologous chromosomes or homologues
two copies of each chromosome
inversion
fragment reattaches to the original chromosome in the reverse orientation, producing a mutation
karyotype
array of the chromosomes found in an individual's cells arranged in order of size and shape
mutations
change in the DNA of a gene or chromosome
nondisjunction
accident in chromosome separation
sex chromosome
chromosomes that differ between males and females
translocation
fragment may join a nonhomologous chromosome
trisomy
condition in which a diploid cell has an extra chromosome
cytokinesis
the C phase is when the cytoplasm divides
anaphase
stage of cell division in which chromosome copies separate
binary fission
form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring
genetic recombination
rearrangement of genetic material
spores
an asexual, resting, reproductive, haploid cell
cell cycle
a repeating sequence of growth and division through which many kinds of eukaryotic cells pass
interphase
a eukaryotic cell spends most of it's life in the G1, S, and G2 phase
crossing-over
arms of chromosomes exchange reciprocal segments of DNA
kinetochore
a second group of microtubules extends out from a region of the centromere of each chromosome
metaphase
stage of mitosis and meiosis when chromosomes move to and line up at center of a cell
mitosis
process by which the nucleus of a cell is divided into two nuclei, each with the same number and kinds of chromosomes
telophase
stage of mitosis in which a new nuclear envelope forms and spindle fibers disappear
spindle fiber
network of hallow protein cables that form between separated centrioles and move chromosomes apart
meiosis
mechanism that halves the number of chromosomes in cells is a form of cell division
prophase
stage of mitosis in which chromosomes condense and become visible, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and spindle fibers become visible
sexual reproduction
reproduction in which gametes from opposite sexes or mating types unite to form a zygote
reduction division
in meiosis, term used to indicate the reduction of the number of chromosome(by half) when the cytoplasm divides
crop
type of plant that is culivated for use by humans
Calvin cycle
most common carbon-fixing pathway
oxidative respiration
series of reactions
producers
food molecules by capturing energy and carbon atoms from their environment
chromatids
two copies of each chromosomes
consumers
organisms that must obtain energy to build its molecules by consuming other organisms; hetrotrophs
pigment
a molecule containing atoms that enable it to absorb light
NADPH
reduced form of NADP+ (nictinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
food chains
series of organisms through which energy flows from a producer to one or more consumers
ATP synthesis
protein channel in a membrane through which protons are pumped to produce ATP
NADP+
coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms and energy from one place to another in a cell
carbon fixation
enzymes incorporate carbon atoms from carbon dioxide into organic molecules
carotenoids
yellow and orange plant pigments that produce fall colors
chlorophyll
green pigment, is the primary light-absorbing agent for photosynthesis
electromagnetic spectrum
complete range of radiant energy
fermentation
electrons from glycolysis are added to organic molecules
Down syndrome
traits produced by having an extra copy of chromosome 21
autosomes
a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex
electron transport chain
each electron is passed through a series of membrane-bound protein and pigment molecules
granum
stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
photons
all forms of radiant energy actually consist of tiny packets of energy
photosystem
pigments used in photosynthesis are arranged in molecule clusters
photosystem I
clusters boost electrons to a higher energy state by absorbing light with a wavelength of 700nm
photosystem II
clusters boost electrons by absorbing more energetic light with the slightly shorter wavelength of 680nm
radiant energy
energy that is transmitted in waves that can travel through a vacuum
reaction center
area of a photosystem where an electron is boosted and leaves a chlorophyll a molecule
reducing power
ready supply of attachable hydrogen atoms that can be used for reduction
stroma
fluid matrix of a chloroplast
thylakoids
the interior of a chloroplast is filled with many flattened membrane-bound sacs
Krebs cycle
repeating series of reactions that produces ATP, electron carriers, and carbon dioxide
acetyl-CoA
this group is attached to a coenzyme (coenzyme A) forming a compound
aerobic
require oxygen
anaerobic
do not require oxygen
pyruvate
salt of pyruvic acid that is produced by the breakdown of glucose during glycosis
centromere
two chromatids are attached by a protein disk at a point
glycolysis
(first stage of cellular respiration) glucose split into smaller molecules in a biochemical pathway
diploid
term used to indicate cell containing two homologues of each chromosome
amniocentesis
procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn and tested for genetic abnormalities in a fetus
chorionic villi sampling
fetal-testing procedure in which pieces of the chorionic villi in a mother's uterus are removed and examined for genetic abnormalities
chromosomes
rod-shaped structure that forms when a single DNA molecule and its associated proteins coil tightly before cell division
deletion
a fragment of chromosomes break off, and it can be lost when the cell divides causing a mutation
duplication
chromosome fragment attaches to its homologous chromosome, which will carry two copies of a certain set of genes
gametes
haploid cell that participates in fertilization by fusing with another haploid cell
gene
segment of DNA that transmits information from parent to offspring