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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cultural interpreter
a person who can create bridges between school and home culture; they don't have to speak the language as long as they understand the culture
Respite care
the short term care of a family member with a disability to provide relief for parents from caretaking duty
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree and to demonstrate experimentally that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement in behavior.
Autism spectrum disorders-
-group of five related developmental disorders that share common core deficits or difficulties in social relationships, communication, and ritualistic behaviors; differentiated from one another primarily by the age of onset and severity of various systems; includes autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and PDD-NOS
Asperger Syndrome
developmental disorder characterized by normal cognitive and language development with impairment sin all social areas, repetitive stereotyped behaviors, preoccupation with atypical activities or items, pedantic speech patterns, and motor clumsiness; included in autism spectrum disorder.
Autistic savant
exhibits extraordinary ability in a specific area such as memorization, math, music while functioning at the level of MR in all other areas.
Childhood disintegrative disorder
does not begin until after age 2-10, Medical complications are common
Discrete trial training
instructional format involving a series of three part trials: (1) an antecedent stimulus ex. Flashcard with 2+2=?, (2) student response ex. 4, (3) feedback
Double blind, placebo controlled study
procudre used to control for expectancy effects by subjects and bias by researchers in studies evaluating the effects of a treatment or intervention; some subjects receive the actual treatment being tested; others receive a placebo but don’t know which they are getting (they are blind), the researchers don’t know who gets what either so its double blind.
the repetition of what other people say as if echoing them; characteristic of some children with delayed development, autism, and communication disorders
Facilitated communication
augmentative communication in which a facilitator provides assistance to someone in typing or pointing to vocabulary symbols; typically involves an alphanumeric keyboard on which the user types out his message one letter at a time. To date, research designed to validate FC has repeatedly demonstrated either facilitator influence (correct or meaningful language is produced only when the facilitator knows what should be communicated) or no unexpected language competence compared to the participants’ measured IQ or a standard language assessment.
Pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)-
children who meet some but not all criteria for autistic disorder
Rett Syndrome
neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood characterized by normal early development followed by loss of purposeful use of hands, distinctive hand moevemtns, slowed brain and head growth, gait abnormalities, seizures, and MR; affects females almost exclusively
loss of speech functions; often, but not always refers to inability to speak b/c of brain lesions
Articulation Disorder
a child is at present not able to produce a given sound physically; the sound is not in his repertoire of sounds.
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)-
)- a diverse set of nonspeech communcation strategies and methods to assist individuals who are unable to meet their communication needs through speech; includes sign language, symbol systems, communication boards, and synthetic speech devices.
Language disorder-
impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbols
a system used by a group of people for giving meaning to sounds, words, gestures, an dother symbols to enable ocmmunication with one another. Languages can use vocal or nonvocal symbols
American Sign Language (ASL)-a
a visual gestural language with its own rules of syntax, semantics, and p[ragmatics; does not correspond with written or spoken English. Used in US and Canada.
a graph of the faintest level of sound a person can hear in each ear at lest 50% of the time at each of several frequencies
a device that generates sounds at specific frequencies and intensities; used to examine hearing.
Auditory Training
a program that works on listening skills by teaching individuals with hearing impairments to make as much use as possible of their residual hearing.
Conductive hearing loss
hearing loss caused by obstructions in the outer or middle ear or malformations that interfere with the conduction of sound waves to the inner ear. Can often be corrected surgically or medically.
Cued speech
-a method of supplementing oral communication by adding cues in the form of eight different hand signals in four different locations near the chin.
the result of a hearing loss severe enough so that speech cannot be understood through the ears alone, even with a hearing aid; some sounds may still be perceived.
the unit of measure for the relative intensity of sound on a scale beginning at zero. Zero Db refers to the faintest sound a person with normal hearing can detect.
Hard of hearing
level of hearing loss that makes it difficult, although not impossible to comprehend speech through the sense of hearing alone.
Hertz (Hz)-
a unit of sound frequency equal to one cycle per second; used to measure pitch
Oral approach
a philosophy and approach to educating deaf children that stresses learning to speak as the essential element for integration into the hearing world.
Otitis media
an infection or inflammation of themiddle ear that can cause a conductive hearing loss
Residual hearing
- the remaining hearing of a persona who is deaf
Sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the auditory nerve or the inner ear.
Speech reception threshold-
the decibel level at which an individual can understand half of the words during a speech audiometry test; the SRT is measured and recoderd for each ear.
-process of understanding a spoken message by observing the speaker’s lips in combination with information gained from facial expressions , gestures and context of situation
Total communication
teaching deaf combining orl speech, sign language and fingerspeliing.
the adjustment of the eye for seeing at different distances; accomplished by muscles that change the shape of the lens to bring bring an image into clear focus.
Binocular Vision-
vision using both eyes working together to perceive an image
a reduction of loss of vision that occurs when the crystalline lens of the eye becomes cloudy or opaque.
Cortical Visual Impairment
decreased vision or blindness due to known or suspected damage or malfunction of the parts of the brain that interpret visual information.
Field of Vision
the expanse of space visible with both eyes looking straight ahead, measured in degress; 180 degrees in considered normal.
- an eye disease characterized by abnormally hihgh pressure inside the eyeball. If left intreated, it can cause total blindness, but if detected early most cases can be arrested.
Legally Blind
visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye after the best possible correction. It means that the eye can see clearly at 20 feet what the normal eye can see at 200 feet.
Low vision
visual impairment severe enough so that special educational services are required. A child with low vision is able to learn through the visual channel and generally learns to read print.
Orientation and mobility
the ability to establish one’s position in relation to the environment and the ability to move safely from one point to another
-the bending or deflection of light rays from a straight path as they pass from one medium to another. Used by eye specialists in correcting vision.