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101 Cards in this Set

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Apley Test; Apley Grind Test:
Determination of meniscal tear in the knee by grinding the joint manually
Argyll Robertson Pupil:
Bilaterally small, irregular, unequal pupils that react to accommodation but not to light. Seen with tertiary syphilis
Auspitz Sign:
Pinpoint bleeding after removal of a psoriasis scale
Austin Flint Murmur:
Late diastolic mitral murmur; associated with aortic insufficiency with a normal mitral valve
Babinski Sign:
Extension of the large toe with stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot instead of the normal flexion; indicative of upper motor neuron disease (normal in neonates)
Bainbridge Reflex:
Increased heart rate due to increased right atrial pressure
Battle Sign:
Ecchymosis behind the ear associated with basilar skull fractures
Beau Lines:
Transverse depressions in nails due to previous systemic disease
Beck Triad:
JVD, diminished or muffled heart sounds, and decreased BP associated with cardiac tamponade
Bell Palsy:
Lower motor neuron lesion of the facial nerve affecting muscles of upper and lower face. Easily distinguished from upper motor lesions, which predominately affect muscles of the lower face because upper motor neurons from each side innervate muscles on both sides of the upper part of the face
Bergman Triad:
Altered mental status, petechiae, and dyspnea associated with fat embolus syndrome
Biot Breathing:
Abruptly alternating apnea and equally deep breaths (seen with brain injury)
Bisferious Pulse:
Double-peaked pulse seen in severe chronic aortic insufficiency
Bitot Spots:
Small scleral white patches suggesting vitamin A deficiency
Blumberg Sign:
Pain felt in the abdomen when steady constant pressure is quickly released (seen with peritonitis)
Blumer Shelf:
Palpable hardness on rectal examination, due to metastatic cancer of the rectouterine pouch (pouch of Douglas) or rectovesical pouch
Bouchard Nodes:
Hard, nontender, painless nodules in the dorsolateral aspects of the proximal interphalangeal joints associated with osteoarthritis, caused by hypertrophy of the bone
Branham Sign:
Abrupt slowing of the heart rate with compression of the feeding artery (seen with large A–V fistulas)
Brudzinski Sign:
Flexion of the neck causing flexion of the hips (seen in meningitis)
Chadwick Sign:
Bluish color of cervix and vagina, seen with pregnancy
Chandelier Sign:
Extreme pain elicited with movement of the cervix during bimanual pelvic examination (indicates PID)
Charcot Triad:
Right upper quadrant pain, fever and chills, and jaundice associated with cholangitis
Cheyne–Stokes Respiration:
Repeating cycle of a gradual increase in depth of breathing followed by a gradual decrease to apnea (seen with CNS disorders, uremia, some normal sleep patterns)
Chvostek Sign:
Facial spasm elicited by tapping over the facial nerve, indicating hypocalcemia (tetany). May be normal finding in some patients
Corrigan Pulse:
Palpable hard pulse immediately followed by sudden collapse (seen in aortic regurgitation)
Cullen Sign:
Ecchymosis around the umbilicus associated with severe intraperitoneal bleeding (seen with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and hemorrhagic pancreatitis)
Cushing Triad:
HTN, bradycardia, and irregular respiration associated with increased intracranial pressure
Darier Sign:
Erythema and edema elicited by stroking of the skin, indicating mastocytosis
Doll Eyes:
Conjugated movement of eyes of comatose patients in one direction as head is briskly turned in the other direction. Tests oculocephalic reflex indicating intact brain stem
Drawer Sign:
Forward (or backward) movement of the tibia with pressure, indicating laxity or a tear in the anterior (or posterior) cruciate ligament
Dupuytren Contracture:
Proliferation of fibrosis tissue of the palmar fascia resulting in contracture of the fourth and/or fifth digits; often bilateral. May be hereditary or seen in patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease or seizures
Duroziez Sign:
To-and-fro murmur when stethoscope is pressed over the femoral artery, indicating aortic regurgitation
Electrical Alternans:
Beat-to-beat variation in the electrical axis (seen in large pericardial effusions), suggesting impending hemodynamic compromise
Ewart Sign:
Dullness to percussion, increased fremitus and bronchial breathing beneath the angle of the left scapula, indicating pericardial effusion
Fong Lesion/Syndrome:
Autosomal-dominant anomalies of the nails and patella associated with renal abnormalities
Frank Sign:
Fissure of the ear lobe; may be associated with CAD, DM, and HTN
Gibbus:
Angular convexity of the spine due to vertebral collapse (associated with osteoporosis or metastasis)
Gregg Triad:
Cataracts, heart defects, and deafness with congenital rubella
Grey Turner Sign:
Ecchymosis in the flank associated with retroperitoneal hemorrhage
Grocco Sign:
Triangular area of paravertebral dullness, opposite side of a pleural effusion
Heberden Nodes:
Hard, nontender, painless nodules on the dorsolateral aspects of the distal interphalangeal joints associated with osteoarthritis. Results from hypertrophy of the bone
Hegar Sign:
Softening of the distal uterus. Reliable early sign of pregnancy
Hollenhorst Plaque:
Cholesterol plaque on retina seen on funduscopic examination (associated with amaurosis fugax)
Hill Sign:
Femoral artery pressure 20 mm Hg greater than brachial pressure (seen in severe aortic regurgitation)
Hoffmann Sign/Reflex:
Flicking of the volar surface of the distal phalanx causing fingers to flex (associated with pyramidal tract disease)
Homan Sign:
Calf pain with forcible dorsiflexion of the foot (associated with DVT)
Horner Syndrome:
Unilateral miosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis (absence of sweating). From destruction of ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion often from lung carcinoma, especially squamous cell carcinoma
Janeway Lesion:
Erythematous or hemorrhagic lesion seen on the palm or sole with subacute bacterial endocarditis
Joffroy Reflex:
Inability to wrinkle the forehead when bending head and looking up (seen in hyperthyroidism)
Kayser–Fleischer Ring:
Brown pigment lesion due to copper deposition (seen in Wilson disease)
Kehr Sign:
Left shoulder and left upper quadrant pain associated with splenic rupture
Kernig Sign:
Inability to completely extend the leg when the thigh is flexed at a right angle, caused by inflammation of the meninges (seen with meningitis)
Koplik Spots:
White papules on buccal mucosa opposite molars (seen in measles)
Korotkoff Sounds:
Low-pitched sounds resulting from vibration of the artery, detected when measuring BP with the bell of a stethoscope. The last Korotkoff sound is a more accurate estimate of the true diastolic BP than is diastolic BP measured with the diaphragm.
Kussmaul Respiration:
Deep, rapid respiratory pattern (seen in coma or DKA)
Kussmaul Sign:
Paradoxical increase in jugular venous pressure on inspiration (seen in constrictive pericarditis, mediastinal tumor, right ventricular infarction, acute cor pulmonale, and congestive heart failure)
Kyphosis:
Excessive rounding of the thoracic spinal convexity, associated with aging, especially in women
Lasègue Sign/Straight-Leg-Raising Sign:
Pain in the distribution of nerve root when a patient extended in the supine position raises the leg gently; suggests lumbar disk disease.
Levine Sign:
Clenched fist over the chest while describing chest pain (associated with angina and AMI)
Lhermitte Sign:
Neck flexion results in a "shock sensation" (seen in multiple sclerosis and cervical spine problems)
List:
Lateral tilt of the spine; usually associated with herniated disk and muscle spasm
Lordosis:
Accentuated normal concavity of the lumbar spine, normal in pregnancy
Louvel Sign:
Coughing or sneezing causes pain in the leg with DVT
Marcus Gunn Pupil:
Dilation of pupils with swinging flashlight test. Results from unilateral optic nerve disease. Normal pupillary response is elicited when light is directed from the normal eye and a subnormal response when light is quickly directed from the normal eye into the abnormal eye. When light is directed into the abnormal eye, both pupils dilate rather than maintain the previous degree of miosis.
McBurney Point/Sign:
Point located one third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus on the right. (Tenderness at the site is associated with acute appendicitis)
McMurray Test:
Palpable or audible click on the joint line produced by external rotation of the foot, suggesting medial meniscal injury
Möbius Sign:
Inability to maintain convergence, seen in thyrotoxicosis
Moro Reflex (Startle Reflex):
Abduction of hips and arms with extension of arms when infant's head and upper body are suddenly dropped several inches while being held. Normal reflex in early infancy
Murphy Sign:
Severe pain and inspiratory arrest with palpation of the right upper quadrant during deep inspiration (associated with cholecystitis)
Musset or de Musset Sign:
Rhythmic nodding or movement of the head with each heart beat, caused by blood flow back into the heart secondary to aortic insufficiency
Obturator Sign:
Hypogastric pain elicited by flexion and internal rotation of the thigh in cases of inflammation of the obturator internus (present with pelvic abscess and appendicitis)
Ortolani Test/Sign:
Sign:
hip click that suggests congenital hip dislocation. Test:
with the infant supine, point the legs toward you and flex the legs to 90 degrees at the hips and knees
Osler Node:
Tender, red, raised lesions on the hands or feet (seen with SBE)
Pancoast Syndrome:
Carcinoma involving apex of lung, resulting in arm and/or shoulder pain from involvement of brachial plexus and Horner syndrome from involvement of the superior cervical ganglion
Pastia Lines:
Linear striations of confluent petechiae in axillary folds and antecubital fossa, seen in scarlet fever
Phalen Test:
Prolonged maximum flexion of wrists while opposing dorsum of each hand against each other. A positive test result is pain and tingling in the distribution of the median nerve (seen in carpal tunnel syndrome)
Psoas Sign (Iliopsoas Test):
Flexion against resistance or extension of the right hip, producing pain; seen with inflammation of the psoas muscle (present with appendicitis)
Pulsus Alternans:
Fluctuation of pulse pressure with every other beat (seen in aortic stenosis and CHF)
Queckenstedt Test:
compression of the internal jugular vein during lumbar puncture to determine patency of the subarachnoid space; normal result is immediate increase in CSF pressure
Quincke Sign:
Alternating blushing and blanching of the fingernail bed after light compression (seen in chronic aortic regurgitation)
Radovici Sign:
Chin contractions caused by scratching of the palm; a frontal release sign
Raynaud Phenomenon/Disease:
Pain and tingling in fingers after exposure to cold with characteristic color changes of white to blue and then often red. May be seen with scleroderma and SLE or be idiopathic (Raynaud disease)
Romberg Test:
The patient stands with heels and toes together with arms outstretched palms facing up or down or arms at sides. The examiner lightly taps the patient, first with the patient's eyes open and then with the patient's eyes closed. A positive result is the patient's loss of balance. Loss of balance with the eyes open indicates cerebellar dysfunction. Normal balance with eyes open and loss of balance with eyes closed indicate loss of position sense. Used to test position sense and cerebellar function
Roth Spots:
Oval retinal hemorrhages with a pale central area occurring in patients with bacterial endocarditis
Rovsing Sign:
Pain in the RLQ with deep palpation of the LLQ (seen in acute appendicitis)
Schmorl Node:
Degeneration of the intervertebral disk resulting in herniation into the adjacent vertebral body
Scoliosis:
Lateral curvature of the spine
Sentinel Loop:
A single dilated loop of small or large bowel, usually secondary to localized inflammation such as pancreatitis
Sister Mary Joseph Sign/Node:
Metastatic cancer to umbilical lymph node
Stellwag Sign:
Infrequent ocular blinking
Tinel Sign:
Radiation of an electric shock sensation in the distal distribution of the median nerve elicited by percussion of the flexor surface of the wrist when fully extended (seen in carpal tunnel syndrome)
Traube Sign:
Booming or pistol shot sounds heard over the femoral arteries in chronic aortic insufficiency
Trendelenburg Test:
Patient shifts weight from one leg to the other while being observed from behind; a pelvic tilt to opposite side suggests hip disease and weakness of the gluteus medius muscle. A normal pelvis does not tilt.
Trousseau Sign:
Carpal spasm produced by inflation of a BP cuff above the systolic pressure for 2–3 min, indicates hypocalcemia or migratory thrombophlebitis associated with cancer
Turner Sign:
See Grey Turner sign
Virchow Node (Signal or Sentinel Node):
A palpable, left supraclavicular lymph node; often first sign of a GI neoplasm, such as pancreatic or gastric carcinoma
von Graefe Sign:
Lid lag associated with thyrotoxicosis
Weber test:
place a 512- or 1024-Hz tuning fork on the middle of the patient's skull to determine if the sound lateralizes.
Rinne test:
hold the tuning fork against the patient's mastoid process (BC) with the opposite ear covered. The patient indicates when the sound is gone. Then hold the tuning fork next to the ear, and the patient indicates whether the sound is present and when the sound (AC) disappears. Normally AC is better than BC. With sensorineural hearing loss, the Weber test lateralizes to the less affected ear, and AC > BC; with conduction hearing loss, the Weber test lateralizes to the more affected ear, and BC > AC.
Whipple Triad:
Hypoglycemia, CNS, and vasomotor symptoms (ie, diaphoresis, syncope); relief of symptoms with glucose (associated with insulinoma)