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47 Cards in this Set

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Aftercast
A bronze sculpture cast using molds taken from pre-existing work in bronze, rather than the original model. Smaller in size that the bronze due to shrinking with cooling. Often results in softening or loss of surface detail.
Alloy
A mixture of two or more metals that have been melted together to alter color, hardness, corrosion resistance, melting point, malleability and strength.
Attribution
The assignment of a work of unknown authorship to a particular artist, school or nationality. May be attributed based on assessment of facture, materials/technique, documentary evidence or style.
Brass
Alloy of copper and zinc, pale-golden yellow. Until 18th century, 10-28% zinc, after 1740, up to 40% zinc. Less malleable but stronger, harder and easier to cast than pure copper.
Bronze
Alloy of copper and tin, tin content of 5-14%. Strength, corrosion resistance and brittleness increases in proportion to tin content. Luster and durability make it preferred medium for small sculpture to be picked up and handled.
Bust
3D partial representation of a real, imagined or symbolic human figure that concentrates on the head. Usually a portrait, often bear adornments that indicade the identity, status or symbolic meaninig of the figure represented.
Cartouche
Sculpted ornament in the form of a scroll, bearing an inscription or emblem.
Carving
Removal of material to reveal a form, use of a drill and iron tools.
Caryatid
A figure used instead of a column or pilaster as a vertical support element. Often women.
Cast-in Repair
Metal fills poured into a sculpture after its initial casting. Flaws in a cast surface may occur due to trapped gas or overly rapid cooling of the molten metal, restricting its flow into a section of the mold. Usually not visible on the surface.
Chasing
Two processes: 1) modeling of decorative patterns on a hand-shaped sheet-metal surface using punches applied to the front or 2) the finishing and refinement of a cast sculpture- Both require tremendous skill and time
Clay
A natural material formed by the decomposition of certain types of rock. When mixed with water- becomes a stiff paste that can be shaped and then fired. Primarily hydrated aluminum silicate crystals.
Contrapposto
"Placed opposite"- a stance in which each straight or weight bearing limb of a standing human is juxtaposed with a bent of resting limb, creating diagonal shift in the torso. Approximates the natural disposition of a body at rest.
Copy
More or less exact reproduction of an existing sculpture. Produced by artists for different clients- not usually produced with the intent to deceive.
Core
Material that fills the interior cavity of a mold when a hollow metal casting is made. Must be made of a refractory material (will resist high temperatures without changing. Function: to reduce the amount of metal in the cast, reducing cost. Also, to keep the walls of the cast uniform in thickness to avoid uneven shrinkage
Core Pins
Pins or rods used in metal casting tol hold the core in correct alignment to the outer mold, preserving the space between the two and thus defining the thickness of the metal. Often removed from the finished cast by pushing them into the hollow interior.
Equestrian
A person on horseback. Intended to invoke the glory and power of the Roman empire- popular for representation of military leaders and rulers.
Foundry
The establishment where metal casting takes place. Mold and wax making area, casting area with kiln or drying oven, a melting furnace and a casting pit. Often artists entrusted the casting of their models to professional founders.
Frontal
A descriptive term for a sculpture strongly oriented toward a single viewpoint, which is obtained by standing in front of the work- always the primary view.
Gesso
Calcium sulfate or a white paste used as a preparation layer in the decoration of rough and porous materials such as stone, wood and terra-cotta.
Gilding
The process of coating an object with a thin layer of gold. Purpose is to create illusionistic effects- some appear to be solid gold, imitate appearance of other textures and materials.
Glaze
In ceramic sculpture, a silica-based glassy coating fused to a ceramic body. Functions as both a decorative and protective layer.
Gypsum Plaster
A white powdery substance which, when mixed with water, sets through crystallization to a hard, brittle solid. Ideal mold-making material, flows easily into voids and undergoes a process of crystallization that causes slight expansion, forcing the plaster into the fine details of the mold.
In Sito
A term applied to works of art that remain in their intended locations and settings.
Inscription
Any text that has been cast, carved, engraved or stamped into a surface formed with a stylus or other pointed tools. May include the artist's signature, the date of execution, the artist's city of origin or title of the work.
In-the-round
A 3D sculpture carved or modeled on all sides (or all sides meant to be seen)
Join
A location on a sculpture where sections have been fitted together. Lines are often detectable only through radiology
Kiln
A brick or stone structure, sometimes partly underground, that contains a source of heat a space to place objects. Used to fire clay for terra-cotta sculpture and to prepare molds for metal casting
Limeplaster
A white powdery substance that when mixed with water, sets to a hard, brittle solid. Shrinks considerably as it dries
Limestone
Sedimentary stone primarily composed of calcium carbonate. Nearly pure calcium limstones are white, fine grain permits very detailed carving, byt only very hard stone with a low clay content can be polished. Finer grained than marble and likely to contain visible fossils
Lost Wax Casting/Bronze Casting
A technique that has been the primary method for casting bronze sculpture since antiquity. Involves replacement of a wax model with molten bronze. Two methods: 1) direct- wax is molded directly onto a preformed core, 2) indirect- wax is pressed or poured into a piece mo;d made from the original model and the core material is then poured into the formed wax. Fine surface details, more porous
Marble
Composed primarily of calcite and or dolimite. Formed from the metamorphosis of limestone in response to heat and pressure, medium to coarse grained.
Model
Preliminary version of a projected sculpture, usually executed in an inexpensive material. Made to facilitate the design and/or execution of the final sculpture
Modeling
Method of manipulating a sculptural medium such as clay, plaster or wax to create a form. Involves the building up and shaping, rather than carving.
Mold
Negative impression of a form into which a sculpting material is poured or pressed. 1) Intaglio: carved into stone or ceramic resident to heat 2) Piece: can be taken apart without damage to the model or the cast sculpture 3) waste: must be broken away to reveal the cast sculpture 4) sand: used in sand casting, relatively easy to make 5) flexible: made of gelatin 6) mother: hold all the section of a piece mold in proper alignment
Monumental
Sculpture of large or over-life-size proportions, also connotes grandeur
Multiple Views
Sculpture that is intended to be seen from various points of view, all of which are pleasing and/or essential for understanding the work
Niche
Concave or rectangular architectural recess, often intended for the display of a sculpture
Patina
Naturally or artificially induced surface alteration on metal- also includes coating applied to metal such as drying oils and paint.
Polychromy
Decoration of a surface in many colors, often including metallic treatments. In sculpture, refers to carved and painted wooden reliefs
Portrait
Any representational likeness of an individual- may be sculpted in-the-round, using either a full-length or bust format, or in relief.
Primary View
The angle from which a sculpture yields its most pleasing, comprehensive and informative view
Relief
Sculpture in which the lements of the composition project from the surface of a more or less flat background known as the relief plane. Classified according to the degree of projection from the relief plane.
Reliquary
A box or sculpted contained made as a repository for preserving, displaying and glorifying sacred relics. Often shaped relating to the contents
Sand Casting
Technique for casting metals- primary method for casting iron and bronze in the 19th century. Rough and pebbly interior texture
Strut
A narrow piece of stone connecting tow parts or limbs of a stone sculpture which would otherwise be extremely fragile and susceptible to breakage
Support/Base
Anything that holds up or brears the weight of a sculpture from below. Meant to: support the sculpture's weight, raise its height to the desired viewing level or achieve a pleasing visual transition between the sculpture and the ground. Socle: small, 3D support, usually decorated with moldings, Pedestal: larger support, tall and narrow or deep and wide composed of 1) top: cornice or surbase, 2) middle/body: dado/die 3) nearest to the ground: foot, plinth or base